Search Tips Explanation Examples
PHRASES Multiple words are searched together as a phrase, in the exact order in which they appear. Phrase searching is the default.

"united states supreme court"

"global warming"

KEYWORDS Use connector and to search for all the words in any field, in any order.

welfare and families

Use connector or to search for either word in any field, in any order.

plants or vegetation

Use and not to exclude words.

mexico and not new mexico

Use parentheses to group words together when using more than one connector.

desert and (arizona or sonora)

WILDCARD Words can be right-hand truncated using an asterisk * to truncate from 1-5 characters. (cat* = cat, cats, catalog, etc.)

child* and diseases

Use an asterisk * to replace a letter in the middle of a word.


Use a double asterisk ** for open-ended truncation.

huck** finn

PROXIMITY Use near to specify words close to each other, in any order

university near arizona

Use within # to specify words within a specific distance.

cactus within 3 arizona

FIELDS Use field abbreviations to specify search fields.
au: (for author)
ti: (for title)
su: (for subjects)
no: (for notes and additional keywords).

au:smith and ti:astronomy

au:university of arizona and su:optics

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