Syllabus HIS-274: The Holocaust - in Western Civilization
Shoah and The Nazi Assault on Humanity - A Warning, They let us do it
May their voice never be silenced
May your voice be heard
Remember & speak up for all-inclusiveness and equal dignity & equality
Instructor: Edith Shaked
Course Number: HIS-274
Academic Context of the Course HIS 274 - The Holocaust at Pima Community College
* Important: Equivalent to HIS-374 at the University of Arizona (UA)
* Fulfills AGEC and requirement for Liberal Arts Associate of Arts for Transfer to Arizona Universities; check with campus advisor.
* Required for Diversity Certificate
* G - Global Awareness
No previous knowledge of the Holocaust is required: The course assumes no prior knowledge of either Jewish history & Judaism, the history of antisemitism, or the Holocaust. Rather, it sets out to provide an introductory historical understanding of these issues.
The course is also intended to assist other teachers in preparing their own courses on the Holocaust.
Course Description & Conceptual framework
Causes and legacies of the assault on humanity and violations of human rights of the Other during the Holocaust Era and the Nazi regime - Third Reich in Germany,1933-45. This course attempts to deal with the historical, social and psychological forces, ideas and events leading up to the Holocaust, the attempted annihilation of all Jews and the almost complete destruction of the European Jewish communities (Shoah), and the murder of the non-Jewish Undesirable Others.
The Shoah ... the attempt to exterminate the Jewish people ... overwhelming event (Emil L. Fackenheim, What is Judaism) ... the destruction of the lives of two-thirds of the Jews in Europe ... and about one-third of the entire Jewish people the most traumatic experience of the Jewish people in living memory ... Eradication was to be total (M. R. Marrus, The Holocaust in History).
The Holocaust is a course unlike any other subject in the university/college curriculum. This is not only due to the enormous demands it makes upon us intellectually, challenging us to develop and draw upon knowledge in history, sociology, psychology, philosophy, politics, and theology, covering centuries of history. But the study of the Holocaust is also extraordinarily challenging because of the additional emotional and moral demands it makes on us. The issues raised by a study of the Holocaust call into question many of the basic values of Western Civilization, and it challenges us to redefine the meaning of human being.
We will seek to investigate and attempt to understand the origins/causes, progression/development, of the onslaught against the Jews and against the non-Jewish Others, the Undesirables. This course will examine from a psychological/sociological perspective, using an interdisciplinary approach, the groups of individuals associated with the Holocaust (perpetrators, victims, bystanders, resistance fighters, rescuers).
The meaning, impact, and aftermath of the Holocaust will be explored through history, with emphasis on equal dignity, ethics, tolerance, equity in diversity and pluralism, democratic inclusion and human understanding. Through readings, and discussions, we will explore and discuss the behavior and perspectives of perpetrators, victims, bystanders, and ourselves as students, while seeking to understand the nature of this twentieth century event and its significance.
Can we educate? ... You see, the Holocaust, that extreme, and best-researched case of genocide, turns out to be also the arena for the most amazing examples of the other side of human capability, namely that of self-sacrifice for others, of our ability to stand up for moral values that we and our listeners will admire. ... rescuers during the Holocaust ... teach us of different behavior, though the road to that end is extremely difficult.1
The Holocaust, ultimately, teaches valuable lessons about human nature and society. The educational and moral lessons of the Holocaust have been summed up by Professor Yehuda Bauer, the Academic Advisor to the task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, in the following memorable three-point prohibition:
Do not be a perpetrator
Do not be a victim
Do not be a bystander.
Purpose The Holocaust
"They came for the communists, and I did not speak up because I wasn't a communist;
They came for the socialists, and I did not speak up because I was not a socialist;
They came for the union leaders, and I did not speak up because I wasn't a union leader;
They came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew.
Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak up for me."
Martin Niemoller, 1892-1984
It is doubtful that any real sense can be made of what happened under Nazi Germany; the very nature and magnitude of the events defy comprehension. Nonetheless, there is a moral obligation upon us as contemporary representatives of humankind to make an attempt, however feeble, at understanding the historical, social and psychological forces which coalesced between 1932 and 1945 to turn the unimaginable into devastating reality. Elie Wiesel, one of the most articulate ... commentators on the Holocaust ... argued ...: The Holocaust? ... a human disaster ... stands as a landmark of mans faculty for evil. ... Holocaust history remains ... an unprecedented historical event (Lessons & Legacies, Teaching the Holocaust in a Changing World).
Understanding the Holocaust leads to understanding hate. Studying the rise of the Nazis and their extermination of the Jews and other undesirables is an exploration into how ordinary people can, through mass persuasion and social structural constraints, be led into committing genocide. Milton Meltzer observes, that it happened once, unbelievable as it seems, means that it could happen again. Hitler made it a possibility for anyone. Neither the Jews nor any other group on earth can feel safe from that crime in the future
We will see the extreme results of intolerance of the other, and of inter-ethnic and inter-cultural conflict represented in the course. This case study of genocide also provides examples of the use of modern technology without moral or ethical bounds. We will be forced to closely examine our own moral understandings in light of the realities of genocide in the 20th century.
Our understanding of genocide leads us to an appreciation of the necessity for equal dignity and equal rights for everyone, for maintaining tolerance of people diversity, and a refusal to let hate-based policies of small groups become the policy of a nation. It is crucial that, through the examination of the extreme results of prejudice, intolerance of the others, ethnocentrism, we begin to understand our individual and corporate responsibilities for moral and ethical acceptance of diverse peoples and perspectives.
Class Meetings & Outline
The schedule below provides a general guideline to the semester and is flexible based on any need for additional discussion of a particular topic.
The Holocaust in European & World History - Hatred of the Other. Prejudice Reduction ______________________________________________________________________________
Part I. Background & Context - Antecedents & Preconditions
Week 1 & 2.
Introduction. Ideological Roots & Western Civilization. Human behavior
The dislike of the unlike. Marginalization of the Disliked Other
Antisemitism in history: Why the Jews? (Bauer, 3-52)
Identity, Difference & the Other - Distortion of Difference into Otherness
Modern Era Ideologies: Liberalism. Industrialized capitalism. Biological racism; eugenics.
Racial nationalism. Racial & political antisemitism. Mass politics
3. World War I & Its Aftermath. Totalitarianism: Fascism & Communism. (Bauer 53-92)
4. Weimar Republic,1918-32. Why Germany?
5. Hitler & Nazi Party, 1918-33. Nazism: Racism, antisemitism, extreme nationalism
Part II. The 3rd Reich & Holocaust Era, Jan. 1933-May 45
A. Prewar 1933-39 National Socialism & Creation of the Racial Totalitarian State
6. Introduction. Fascism. Obedience, authority, conformity
Third Reich: SS Police State
Nazi Leadership & Instruments of Nazi Terror
Biological Racism & Racial Purity - Reorganizing humanity: Nazi Antisemitism; Racism
Eugenics, euthanasia, life unworthy of life; Non-Jewish groups targeted
7. Prewar Jewry (Bauer 93-137)
Evolution of Nazi Antisemitic Policy, Kristallnacht; 1933-39
Resisters: Jehovahs Witnesses - Conformity vs. Conscience
B. World War II, Sept 39-May 45 Genocide & The New Order
1. 1939-41 Euthanasia. Poland & Genocide. War Against the Jews
8. German Foreign Policy - Road to war, 1933-39
Euthanasia. Poland & Turn to Genocide (Bauer 139-91)
9. War Against the Jews, Poland - Ghettos. Deportation. Dehumanization
Exporting Nazi Policies (Bauer 227-243)
Bureaucracy of Evil: The Devil is a gentleman - A. Eichman (video)
2. 1941-45 From Isolation to Annihilation: genocide, Shoah
10. The Final Solution. Wannsee Conference
Concentration & Death Camps. Auschwitz-Birkenau (Bauer, 193-226)
Murder of Non-Jews/the Others
Perpetrators - Obedience, technocracy, ethics
Ordinary Men or Willing Executioners?
11. Responses. Resistance (Bauer, 245-77)
Rescue - Righteous (Bauer, 279-302)
Altruism & religious based responses: Weapons of the Spirit (video)
13. Last Years of WWII, 1943-45. (Bauer, 303-30)
Philosophical, Theological, Religious Dimensions. Wiesel, Night
Part III. Aftermath & Legacies 1945-
14. Liberation. Nuremberg trials. Legacy. Value of diversity (Bauer, 330-49)
A psycho-social model of genocide. Quest for understanding: The Sunflower
Textbooks and Workbooks, created and compiled by G. Grobman and E. Shaked, and/or
Yehuda Bauer, The History of the Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982);
Botwinick, R. S. (1996). A History of the Holocaust: From Ideology to Annihilation.
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Ronnie S. Landau, The Nazi Holocaust. First American edition. (Ivan R. Dee, 1994)
Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men (New York: Harper, 1993)
Robert Kesting, The Black Experience during the Holocaust, The Holocaust & History.
Elie Wiesel, Night, New York: Bantham, 1982.
Simon Wiesenthal, The Sunflower: On The Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness.
Class Meetings & other requirements
Classroom attendance and class discussion will greatly enhance your understanding of the material presented in this class. Also, material will be presented that is not in any of the books and class participation/discussion will constitute a percentage of you final grade.
1. Attendance is mandatory. Anyone who misses four (4) unexcused consecutive classes will be dropped from the roll, with the 4th absence. Please be aware that skipping class (unexcused absences) will impact your grade in this area. Any unexcused absence minus 5% each.
2. Students are required to read assigned materials, do the relevant homework in the Student Workbook, and to complete the papers, and the assignments. Assignments must be completed before coming to class.
3. Class Participation & Discussion: Students are expected to have read each reading assignment in advance of the class meeting for which it is assigned, and be prepared to discuss the contents. There will be opportunities for class members to discuss thoughts and feelings that arise during the course. To assist preparation for discussion, students are encouraged to write notes.
4. Students should read the current Pima Community College Schedule of classes/catalog
5. Students are responsible to have a complete syllabus & and all assignments, including The Holocaust: A Webquest - the educational outreach site of the US Holocaust Museum at: http://www.cyberlearning-world.com/lessons/ushistory/webquest1.htm
6. Students should be responsible to know about all their homework assignments, dates of class meetings, of exams, of the final examination, and dates of quizzes.
Grading Policy & requirements
Take and pass four quizzes, two exams, and a comprehensive final; write an analysis paper and one response paper; and class attendance and participation/discussion.
All grades will be assigned on a scale of 0 - 10 with:
90 - 100 A Excellent
80 - 89 B Above Average
70 - 79 C Average
60 - 69 D Below Average
Less than 60 F Failing
Percent of Grade:
Quizzes 20%; 1st exam 25%; 2nd exam and response paper 25%; final exam and analysis paper 25%, attendance 5% = 100%
Quizzes & examinations: They are designed to test for a basic understanding of the terms and historical events surrounding the holocaust; they will include multiple choice and essay. They will cover material presented in lecture, readings, and discussion. The final is comprehensive.
Policy: No pass/fail grades. No extra credit. No incomplete grade
All exams must be taken on the date scheduled. In case of an emergency, the instructor must be notified. No make-up exams will be give if you fail to notify and discuss your situation with the instructor. It is up to the instructor's discretion whether to offer or not offer a make-up exam. Please note that no extra credit work will be make available to make-up for a poor test grade.
Response Paper: The response paper is designed to provide you with an opportunity to integrate and respond to information in presented and discussed in class. Each answer should represent a synthesis/analysis of the information as opposed to a personal reflection or reaction to the material.
Analysis Paper: The purpose of the analysis paper is to provide you, the student, with the opportunity to explore the perpetration of the Holocaust from a psychological/sociological perspective in depth. The paper will consist of an evaluation of Night of Elie Wiesel and of The Sunflower in relation to material discussed in class and readings.
Time to discuss problems: by appointment and/or e-mail at: email@example.com
Policy statements & Scholastics ethics
Pima Community College is an equal opportunity, affirmative action employer and educational institution committed to excellence through diversity. Reasonable accommodations including material format, will be made for individuals with disabilities when a minimum of five working days advance notice is given. Contact the appropriate campus Disabled Student Resources Office, at (520) 206-6128 (TTY 206-6128)
Scholastics ethics will be synonymous with avoiding cheating, plagiarism, and/or inappropriate, disruptive and/or offensive conduct. Students are responsible to read all relevant college documents, the Scholastic Code of Ethics, and the Student Code of Conduct, and to comply with them.
Plagiarism (attempting to pass off the work of another as one's own) is not acceptable and will result in a grade of 0 for that assignment and will be turned over to the appropriate college source for disciplinary action. In addition, cheating on exams will also result in the same fate.
Late withdraws from this class will not be approved by the instructor except in cases of emergency discussed with the instructor. No late withdraws will be approved on the basis of poor class performance.
This syllabus is subject to change at the instructor's discretion. All changes concerning course requirements will be provided in writing. Changes concerning exam dates may be made at the instructor's discretion and communicated verbally to the class.
It is understood that remaining in this course (not dropping or withdrawing from this course) constitutes an agreement to abide by the terms outlined in this syllabus and an acceptance of the requirements outlined in this document.
I. Mid-Term take-home response paper (from Dr. D. A. Meier: The Holocaust: His-395)
Your essay should make a reasonable use of the lectures as well as your textbooks. Remember, your answers should be carefully constructed using precise terminology, for example, the actual names of important historical events, individuals, dates, literature, and key places. You must provide typed double-spaced three-page minimum-length answers to the following questions. For maximum effect, twenty-five items (names, dates, places, events, excerpts from the documents) should be carefully woven into each essay.
1. Describe ideology of National Socialism, including the role of Adolf Hitler. To what extent is it
truly revolutionary? reactionary?
2. While serving as an American diplomat in Berlin in November 1941, you are called upon by Washington to outline the rise of Adolf Hitler and his anticipated course of action (domestically and internationally) for 1942. On the basis of the evidence at hand, what will you tell your superiors in Washington? Remember, Washington expects a war with Japan in the near future!
3. As a member of the Jewish Council (Judenrat) in Lodz or Warsaw (you choose), you have a
number of responsibilities all of which focus on the question of survival. Outline the meaning of survival in this context as understood by the council and the measures employed to enhance the chances of survival for the Jewish community under your care.
4. Outline evolution of Nazi domestic policy (including occupied territories) towards targeted
groups, namely, Jews, Gypsies, and Communists, beginning with the invasion of Poland in September 1939 through December 1941. Given the nature of the actions, to what extent can the men of Police Battalion 101, the Einsatzgruppen, e.g., Adolf Eichmann, and their foreign auxiliaries be defined as ordinary men?
II. Analysis Paper and personal reflection and reaction to the material:
1. The purpose of this paper is to provide you, the student, with the opportunity to explore the perpetration of the Holocaust from a psychological/sociological perspective in depth. The paper will consist of an evaluation of Night of Elie Wiesel and of The Sunflower in relation to material discussed in class and readings.
2. Assess the impact of the Holocaust/Shoah (Jews and non-Jews) since 1945; include in your answer theological, historical, political, economic, social, and cultural dimensions.
Your essay should make a reasonable use of the lectures as well as your textbooks. Remember, your answers should be carefully constructed using precise terminology, for example, the actual names of important historical events, individuals, dates, literature, and key places. You must provide typed double-spaced three-page minimum-length answer to one of the following questions. For maximum effect, twenty-five items (names, dates, places, events, excerpts from the documents) should be carefully woven into each essay.
A Shadow of Hate: A History of Intolerance in America.
The Longest Hatred, 1993. Between the Wars. From Kaiser to Fuehrer. The World at War, A New Germany, 1933-39, v.1
The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler - Black Fox. Triumph of the Will, 1935. The Master Race.
Night and Fog. The Doomed Voyage of the St. Louis.
The Democrat and the Dictator - F. Roosevelt & A. Hitler, their legacies. The Great Dictator
Jehovahs Witnesses Stand Firm Against Nazi Assault - Conformity vs. Conscience.
The Doomed Voyage of the St. Louis. 50 min. Almost 1,000 German Jewish refugees aboard the liner St Louis, refused entry into Cuba, the United States, and other countries in 1939, must return to Europe.
The Devil is a gentleman - A. Eichman. Who Shall Live and Who Shall Die?
American Rescue: Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee.
The Nazis - A Warning from History. The World at War, v.20.
Nazi Designers of Death. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Resistance at Auschwitz.
Weapons of the Spirit. 35mn The astonishing story of a conspiracy of goodness - During WWII in and around one village in Nazi-occupied France, 5,000 Jews were sheltered by 5,000 Christians.
A Debt of Honor. 30 min. Italians remember how they saved more than 30,000 Jews following the German occupation of northern Italy in 1943, hiding Jews in covents, bringing them across the Swiss border, and forging false identity papers.
They Risked their Lives.
America and the Holocaust: Deceit & Indifference. This film paints a troubling picture of the United States during a period beset by antisemitism and a government overwhelmed by complex social and political factors.
A Painful reminder. Survivors of the Holocaust.
Apt Pupil based on a Stephen King novella; Nazi-themed film examines nature of evil, when a nice Southern California high school senior detects a much-sought old death-camp commander living quietly in an upscale suburban neighborhood.
The Assissi Underground (James Mason)
The Devils Arithmetic
Escape from Sobibor (Alan Larkin)
Exodus (Paul Newman)
Holocaust (Meryl Streep, James Wood)
Judgment at Nuremberg (Spencer Tracy, Judy Garland, Burt Lancaster, Montgomery Cliff);
Mila 18 by Leon Uris
The Music Box: Hollywood effort to deal with issue of bringing American Nazi criminals to justice.
Playing for Time
The Odessa File, Hollywood movie about the same subject, the punishment of Nazi war crimes.
The Pawnbroker is a 1960s Hollywood production of the novel of the same title by Edward Wallant whose subject is the lasting devastation the Holocaust wrecked on the lives of its survivors.
Skokie (small American town confronts neo-Nazism)
Sophies Choice is the film version of William Styrons best seller about a Polish Christian survivor of Auschwitz and her tormented past as well as her tormented present in the U.S.
WEBliography - On-line Sources on the Holocaust - - helpful for essays
The Holocaust. Dickinson State University
* Topic 1: Part A, Holocaust, Shoah
* Topic 1: Part B, Remote Origins/context of the Holocaust: Antisemitism. Germans & Jews in Modern Times (Overview. A Closer Look at the Jewish Identity: Judaism; Jewish Laws & Traditions; Early History; Ghettos; German Jewry in the Prewar Era, 1933-1939; History of Israel; http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/topic1.html
* Topic 2: Rise of Adolf Hitler. http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/hitler.html
* Topic 3: Ghettoization. http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/ghettoization.html
* Topic 4: Mobile Killing Operations. Browning's Ordinary Men.
* Topic 5: Deportations. http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/deportations.html
* Topic 6: Killing Center Operations. Levi's Survival in Auschwitz.
* Topic 7: The Nature of the Process. Two Approaches: Functionalism & Structuralism
* Topic 8: Responses. http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/responses.html
* Topic 9: Aftermath. http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/aftermath.html
More Internet Resources: http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/Holocaust/his395lt.html
WEBliography - On-line Sources on the Holocaust
The Holocaust timeline: http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/chronology.html (excellent)
AITLC Guide to the Holocaust: http://tlc.ai.org/holocaus.html
The Holocaust: http://www.csuchico.edu/cmas/edelman/syllabi/Gen156.links.html
Holocaust and Genocide Studies: http://www.oup.co.uk/holgen/
The Holocaust - Dickinson State University
Harold Marcuse, UCSB History Department Faculty
The Holocaust. PSYC/ANS0 3500 02. Instructor: Dr. Linda M. Woolf
http://www.websteruniv.edu/~woolflm/holocaustcourse.html (+ websites)
The Holocaust & WEBliography: http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/holocaustcourse.html
Holocaust & Genocide Studies: http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/holocaust.html
Holocaust links: http://www.holocaustcenter.com/links.shtml
Cybrary of the Holocaust. One of the most detailed links to other Holocaust sites on the net.
Guide to the Holocaust: http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/
Web sites: http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/resource/website.html
The Holocaust: http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/holo.html
History of the Holocaust: http://www.holocaustcenter.com/historyof.shtml
The Holocaust - http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/Holocaust/history.html
The Holocaust: http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/holo.html
The Holocaust History Project Archive of documents, photographs, recordings, and essays
including direct refutation of Holocaust-denial: http://www.holocaust-history.org
Holocaust resource center: http://home.snap.com/main/channel/item/0,4,-9364,00.html
The Holocaust\Shoah Page: http://www.mtsu.edu/~baustin/holo.html
Museum of Tolerance on line. Multimedia Learning Center. The Courage to Remember:
The Holocaust 1933-1945: http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/resources/courage/index.html
[The Jews] [The Nazis] [World War II] [Antisemitism & The Final Solution] [Resistance & Rescue] [The World Response] [Righteous Among the Nations] [After the War]: http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/pages/index.html
Resources - http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/dmeier/hef/resource.html
Shoah-Projekt The project has numerous links to other Holocaust sites as well as additional information on "The White Rose" Resistance organization and select concentration camps.
Ursula Dubas links: http://users.rcn.com/duba/links.htm
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - The site provides all the information the public needs for trips, calendars of upcoming events, access to museum resources, and on-line exhibits. http://www.ushmm.org/
Additional links are on the Teaching History at: http://www.emporia.edu/socsci/journal/main.htm
Judaism 101 - http://members.aol.com/jewfaq/index.htm
Portals to Judaism - http://www.portals.portland.co.uk/pages/History/
Internet Jewish Sourcebook - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/jewishsbook.html
Antisemitism - What's in a Hyphen? Shmuel Almog: http://sicsa.huji.ac.il/hyphen.htm
Antisemitic legends - http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/antisemitic.html
Dreyfus: French army concedes that Alfred Dreyfus was innocent
German Propaganda - http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ww2era.htm#Antisem
Genocides Links: Armenia. The Balkans. Bosnia. Cambodia. Rwanda ...
The Armenian Genocide. Students and scholars can locate here photographs of the circa 1915 and circa 1916 Armenian Genocide: http://imia.cc.duth.gr/turkey/arme.e.html
Armenian Research Center Home Page - This site provides important facts that are important for anyone interested in the problem of genocide. http://www.umd.umich.edu/dept/armenian
Cambodian Genocide Program. Yale University provides important data on the 1.5 to 2 million Cambodians murdered in the killing fields of Cambodia: http://www.yale.edu/cgp
Ethnic hatred is a constant in times of social crisis, professors say. By Carole Stone:
The Genocide Research Project: http://www.holocaust-history.org
Annihilation Minutes of the Wannsee Conference
Re-examining the Wannsee Conference:
Concentration Camps. Jewish Student Online Resource Center (JSOURCE) provides
directories to many camps and testimonies of the victims.
Extermination camps in occupied Poland
'We did the dirty work of the Holocaust': Sonderkommando Auschwitz
A Virtual Tour of Auschwitz: http://remember.org/educate/intro.html
Perpetrators. Ordinary men or willing executioners:
H-German Discussion of Daniel J. Goldhagen's Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans & the Holocaust: http://h-net2.msu.edu/~german/discuss/goldhagen/
Discussion of Ruth Bettina Birn's Controversial Review of Goldhagen's Work:
Victims. Pink Triangle Pages This site details the fate of gays in the Holocaust and is named for the triangle worn by homosexuals within the German concentration camp system.
Women And The Holocaust. http://www.interlog.com/~mighty/
Forgotten Victims: The Abandonment of Americans in Hitler's Camps. The site is the creation of Mitchell G. Bard, the author of the book listed in the works cited in the text. It helps tell the story of those Americans caught in the Third Reich.
Resisters. Jehovah's Witnesses This website is for those who wore the purple triangle, the Jehovah's Witnesses. Currently this site is expanding and includes diagrams of camps that housed the religious enemies of the Reich.
Jehovahs Witnesses - Resistance: http://www.Holocaust-trc.org/Jehovah.htm
Vichy Law and the Holocaust in France. This site provides additional links to other locations
dealing with Vichy France and the Holocaust. http://www.amgot.org/weisberg.htm
Schindlers List: http://www.holocaust.about.com/msub35.htm?pid=2765&cob=home
Jan Karski: A Hero of the Holocaust: http://remember.org/karski/karski.html
Some sites on Pius XII, very various.
Aftermath. SIMON WIESENTHAL & the sunflower: http://holocaust.about.com/msub69.htm
Nuremberg War Crimes Trials The goal of this site is the complete proceedings of the
Nuremberg Trials. Currently the designers have completed four volumes.
The trial of Adolph Eichmann: http://www3.pbs.org/eichmann/study.htm
United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
The Nuremberg Laws, 1935 : Law of Protection of the German Race: Hereditary Health Kristallnacht. The T4 Euthanasie Program. The Final Solution. Gypsies and the Holocaust
The International Military Tribunal: Nuremberg. Holocaust Denial and Deniers
Holocaust-Era Assets Records and Research at the National Archives and Records Administration . Provides access to primary sources and current information for research as well access to additional secondary sources: http://www.nara.gov/research/assets
Le Musée des beaux-arts du Canada - pictures stolen by nazis
Amery, J. (1980). At the Minds Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor on Auschwitz and
Its Realities. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Henry Friedlander's 'The Origins of Nazi Genocide; From Euthanasia to the Final Solution'
Michael Burleigh and Wolfgang Wipperman, The Racial State
Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews
Fischel, Jack R. The Holocaust. Westport, Connecticut. London: Gre
Marion A. Kaplan, 'Jewish Women in Nazi Germany: Daily Life, Daily Struggles, 1933-39,
in Rittner and Roth, op. cit., pp. 188-212
Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz. (New York: Collier, 1986)
Michael R. Marrus, The Holocaust in History. Reissue edition. (Plume, 1989). ISBN 0452009537
Emmanuel Ringelblum, Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto (New York: Schocken, 1958).
Carol Rittner and John K. Roth, eds., Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust.
(Paragon House Publishers, 1993). ISBN 155778504X
Art Spiegelman, Maus: A Survivor's Tale, v. 1 and Maus: And Here My Troubles Began, v. 2
Max Weinreich, Hitler's Professors (New Haven: Yale, 1999 (1946).
1 www.Holocaust-trc.org/bauer_kynote.htm ( The Amsterdam Conference on Remembrance, May 2001)