Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945
Murderous Racism and Antisemitism - Bureaucracy of Evil
Perpetrators, Collaborators, Victims, Bystanders, Resisters, Rescuers

B. World War II, Sept. 1939-May, 1945: “New Order”

1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism - Lebensraum, Racism, Antisemitism & Dehumanization

SG#9 World War II. Euthanasia. Poland - The Turn to Genocide, 1939-41

I. Define/Identify

2nd period of the Holocaust era; New Order; lebensraum; blitzkrieg; Poland September 1, 1939; Maginot Line; Charles de Gaulle; England; Marshall Philip Petain; Vichy; Winston Churchill; Blitz. Euthanasia, T-4. A-B Aktion.

II. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. With Germany’s invasion of Poland on Sept. 1, 1939, the __________ period of the Holocaust Era started
a) 3rd
b) 2nd

2. At the core of the Holocaust Era was the ideology of _______ This dogma was translated into genocide & ‘Final Solution.’
a) hatred.
b) inclusion

3. By 1942 the Nazis had temporarily conquered a great empire -most Europe from Atlantic Ocean almost to Moscow. They instituted Hitler’s master plan for a ‘_________’ & dominated of the ‘Aryan’ race
a) New Order
b) New Continent

4. Living space, refers to a program of German expansion; principle of Nazi foreign policy
a) Lebensraum
b) Judenfrei

Course of the war, 1939-41

5. ‘Lightning war’ involved the massing of planes, tanks, and artillery; in German:
a) lebensraum
b) Blitzkrieg

6. Sept 1, 1939: Germany’s invasion of ________
a) Poland
b) Belgium

7. Sept. 3, France & Britain declared war on Germany. The
a) 2nd World War began
b) 1st World War began

8. Hitler and ________ divided up the spoils of victory. Germany received two thirds of Poland, and the _____________, the rest.
a) Stalin. Soviet Union
b) Clemenceau. France

9. On western front, bad weather prevents attacks; from Oct. 1939-April ‘40: 6 months of relative military inactivity, or
a) Phony War
b) Peace

10. France’s main reliance was on five million citizen soldiers mobilized defensively behind the "supertrench" called the ___________, an 87 - mile long barrier facing Germany that consisted of barbed wire, tank traps, gun emplacements
a) Maginot Line
b) Clemenceau Line

Blitzkrieg: Invasion & Occupation of the West, early German victory

11. April, 1940, Hitler’s forces overrun Denmark and _________ in 2 days.
a) Italy
b) Norway

12. On May 10, 1940, Germans swept westward, and by May 15, these countries surrendered
a) the Netherlands & Belgium,
b) the Netherlands, Belgium, & Luxembourg

13. May 27-June 4, ‘40: over a 1/4 of a million British & French soldiers, were evacuated from
a) Paris
b) Dunkirk

14. Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French government in _________
a) England
b) Italy

15. By June, this country had collapsed
a) France
b) England

16. On the 22nd of June, the Petain regime, with its capitol in the small town of Vichy, agreed to humiliating peace terms placing almost two thirds of all French territory-including "the City of Light" -under _______ military administration.
a) German
b) Italian

17. On June 25th, hostilities between French & German forces ended. ________stood alone.
a) Italy
b) England

18. Defeated France was split into ____ regions: Germany occupied 3/5 of France -the larger, northern ‘Occupied’ was ruled directly by Germany
a) two
b) three

19. Collaborationist Marshal Philippe _________ signed armistice with Hitler & Mussolini, & established a government in the unoccupied rest -the southern sector of France
a) Petain
b) Francois

20. The capital of the unoccupied southern sector of France was
a) Paris
b) Vichy

21. Prime Minister Winston ____________ rallied British to continue to fight with inspiring speeches stating ‘Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization;’ and during the London _________ and about the British air force, ‘Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.’
a) Churchill, Blitz
b) Gable. Ritz

No Escape: Greece & Yugoslavia Fall

22. By April 1941, Germany conquered
a) Greece and Yugoslavia
b) Greece & Britain

23. Hungary, Bulgaria, and Rumania were controlled as
a) Axis satellites
b) occupied territories

24. In less than two years, the Nazis had overrun most of Europe. This rapid military success convinced the Nazis that the time was at hand to impose their "___________."
a) new order
b) new constitution

Euthanasia. Poland & The Turn to Genocide

25. At the core of the Nazi ideology was a deadly vision of a
a) racially pure society
b) multicultural society

26. The Nazis believed that the "useless mouths" (the chronically ill and the physically and mentally defective) had no right to live -unworthy of life; they Nazis turned to ___________ as a means of eliminating the “unfit” from Germany. On September 1, 1939, Hitler signed an order ‘granting’ such individuals the right to die.
a) euthanasia
b) suicide

27. The operation, known in code as the ____ program (referring to the street address, where the headquarters of the euthanasia program was located) gassed 1000s of ‘useless’ victims in rooms camouflaged as shower chambers, in 6 death camps. The bodies were then cremated.
a) T-4
b) T-1

28. Public protests in 1941, by loved ones, clergy of both the Protestant & Catholic churches, forced the Nazis to __________ this "euthanasia" program
a) stop
b) continue in secret

29. The T-4 program became the model for the mass murder of Jews, Roma (Gypsies), and others in camps equipped with gas chambers that the Nazis would open in 1941 and 1942. These veterans of the T-4 program would later bring their experience to the _____.
a) death camps
b) ghettos

Poland & The Turn to Genocide - A new racial order

30. For the 4th time in its history, Poland was divided between Germany &
a) Prussia
b) the Soviet Union

31. The section of Poland taken over by the Russians in 1939 was
a) western Poland
b) eastern Poland

32. The central section of Poland, including the cities of Lublin Krakow & the Polish capital Warsaw, was set aside to become a German colony -a protectorate, known as the ‘____________,’ under control of Nazi governor, Hans Frank
a) General Government
b) German Government

33. The ‘New Order’ was perceived in terms of territorial conquests & of the introduction into all Nazi-dominated lands of a social, political & philosophical system that stemmed from Nazi ______ ideology, also viewing the Slavic peoples as inferior to the Aryan race.
a) equality
b) racial

34. Many Poles were resettled to make room for the ‘superior’ ‘Aryans.’ _________ families moved in to the newly annexed land
a) Italian
b) German

35. The _____was the code name for the mass destruction of the Polish intellectual elite. Over 10,000 Polish Catholic priests, teachers, artists, writers, politicians, technicians & political leaders were murdered in the 1st months of occupation. 1000s sent to concentration camps
a) A -B Aktion
b) A-Action

36. About 50,000 ‘Aryan-looking’ Polish _________ were kidnapped, and taken to Germany. Many were later rejected as incapable of "Germanization" and send to special camps, where some died of starvation, lethal injection, and disease.
a) women
b) children

Copyright Fall 1999, January 2004 Edith Shaked