II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945
Murderous Racism and Antisemitism - Bureaucracy of Evil. “You let us do it!”
Perpetrators, Collaborators, Victims, Bystanders, Resisters, Rescuers

A. The prewar period, 1933-39: Nazism - A Monolithic Culture
The 3rd Reich & the racial totalitarian state

SG# 8-b
The War Against the Jews - The Legal Onslaught, 1933-39

The “Jewish Question”: Marginalization of the “disliked” other.

Nazi policy toward the Jews from the seizure of power to the beginning of WWII

Jewish Victims: Discrimination, Exclusion, Expropriation, Expulsion, Emigration

Bauer, German Jewry: 121; Nazi Antisemitic Policy & German Jewry:106-120; 122-142

Focus Question
How did the Jews become victims? What was their response?

Students will be able to
Describe the persecution and discrimination the Jews suffer in pre-war Nazi Germany and the types of of anti-Jewish legislation enacted from 1933 to 1939, and discuss their impact on German Jewish life. How were German Jews marginalized and segregated socially, politically and economically? What was their response?

I. Define/Identify

Judenrei; dehumanization. 1933-39; boycott. Joseph Goebbels. Nuremberg Laws. Adolf Eichmann. 1936 Olympic Games. 1938. Aryanization; yellow star. Emigration; Palestine; obstacle to Jewish emigration; Chaim Weizmann. Evian Conference; quota. Kristallnacht. Wagner-Rogers bill. St. Louis. White Paper.

II. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The aim of the Nazi policy vis-a-vis the Jews during this period was to make Germany and German controlled areas free of Jews or ____
a) judenrei
b) lebensraum

2. The aftermath of World War I created a threatening political atmosphere for German Jewry. Economic depression, radical nationalism, street violence, fear of communism and dissatisfaction with democracy drove many Germans towards fiercely __________ attitudes
a) antisemitic
b) tolerant

3. By 1933, German Jews were largely urban, middle class, prosperous in business, and well represented in the professions (especially medicine and law). They were culturally ___________ but represented less than 1 percent of the total population, about 500,000 Jews.
a) isolated
b) integrated

4. Hitler’s obsessive preoccupation with the ‘________’ was, & remained right up to the last moments of his life, absolutely central to his view of the world. The ‘War against the _______,’ was a multi-dimension process; it involved their gradual exclusion from economic life & from German (and, later on, from occupied European) society by legislation, social pressure and intimidation
a) Jewish question. Jews
b) Gypsy question. mentally ill

5. The Holocaust was the end product of a cumulative process of depersonalization (robbing the Jews of a sense of legal personality & individuality) and, later, of
a) dehumanization
b) tolerance

6. As soon as they came to power, the Nazis launched a program of subtle conditioning & indoctrination of their own people, masterminded by _______, the Propaganda Minister
a) Adolf Eichmann
b) Joseph Goebbels

8. Flags, uniforms, ___________- heil to victory-, fanfares, marching columns, banners, & searchlights, were used to mold the Nazi party, and later all of Germany into total compliance with Nazi policy.
a) Sieg Heils
b) Heil to Hitler

9. Julius Streichter's Der Stürmer, was
a) a virulent antisemitic German newspaper
b) a liberal democrat newspaper

Nazi Antisemitic Policy

10. From 1933 to ____ : legal onslaught against the Jews, to eliminate them from all areas of public life, strip them of their citizenship, & restrict their religious freedom.
a) 1955
b) 1939

11. On April 1, 1933, a nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses was announced by ________, organized by the SA (Storm Troops) and SS (Elite Guard), who picketed Jewish-owned shops and businesses.
a) Goebbels
b) Eichmann

12. A six-pointed star which is the symbol of Judaism
a) Star of David
b) Star of Moses

13. April 7th 1933. The Nazis introduced their 1st anti-Jewish law, the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service Act (Law for the Reestablishment of the professional Civil service), firing all ‘_________________’ civil service workers. Thousands of Jews were fired or forcibly ‘retired’ from their jobs as a result
a) non-Aryans
b) Aryan

14. May 10. _________ organized a public burning of ‘un-German literature’ & "banned" books, carried out by student leaders in Berlin.
a) Adolf Eichmann
b) Joseph Goebbels

15. Toward the end of 1934, a so-called Nazi "expert" on the Jews, __________________, was hired by the S.D. to work in its department for Jewish affairs.
a) Goering
b) Adolf Eichmann

16. Two laws enacted on September 15, 1935, defined the Jews in purely racial terms (according to the number of Jewish grandparents they had), & stripped them of their citizenship.

a) Berlin Laws
b) Nuremberg Laws

17. For a brief period after Nuremberg, before and during the ____________ in Berlin, the Nazi regime moderated its anti-Jewish attacks; removed some signs saying "Jews Unwelcome"
a) 1936 Olympic Games
b) 1946 Olympic Games

1938 & After Expropriation - Aryanization

18. 1938 - a turning point; Jewish communities under the jurisdiction of the SS and direct authority of the ___________; anti-Jewish policy more oppressive
a) Gestapo
b) SA

19. The compulsory expropriation of Jewish industries, businesses and shops, under the Nazi regime, after 1938 - the ownership of most Jewish businesses was taken over by non-Jewish Germans

a) Aryanization
b) Nazification

20. Laws that came after 1938 made Jews easier to identify. They were forced to wear the
a) yellow star
b) blue & white star

21. On March 13, 1938, Hitler annexed _________ to the Third Reich. As a result of the annexation, over 120,000 around 200,000 additional Jews came under Nazi control.
a) Austria
b) Poland

Jewish emigration: 1938

22. By 1938, Nazi policy had systematically removed Jews from the political and cultural life of Germany. The overall goal of this phase of Nazi antisemitic policy -forced __________- seemed to be working.

a) emigration
b) imprisonment

23. About 40% of those Jews who emigrated chose British-controlled _________ as their destination.
a) France
b) Palestine

24. Chief obstacles to Jewish emigration was the unwillingness of other nations to accept Jews, because of
a) traditional antisemitism
b) economic depression, unemployment
c) quota in the US by regulation of sept. 8. 1930
d) all the above

25. ______________ stated that, the countries of the world were divided into 2 camps: those that wanted to get rid of the Jews, and those that refused to take them in
a) Theodor Herzl
b) Chaim Weizmann

26. Congress had set up immigration _____ -limited number- in 1924 that limited the number of immigrants & discriminated against groups considered racially & ethnically undesirable
a) numerus clausus
b) quota

27. __________, responding to mounting political pressure, called for an international conference to address the refugee problem

a) Wintson Churchill
b) Franklin D. Roosevelt

28. An international conference of 32 governments, was held in July, 6 & 15,1938, to discuss the plight of refugees, many of whom were Jews escaping Nazi Germany.
a) Paris Conference
b) Evian Conference

29. October 5, 1938: Jews’ passports must include the designation of "J" -Jude. This action was motivated by a request by the _______ government, which did not want to admit Jewish refugees.
a) French
b) Swiss
Kristallnacht 1938-39 Emigration

30. Russian word for "devastation." Organized violence against Jews, often with understood support of authorities.
a) Pogrom
b) genocide

31. Pogrom of November 9, 1938, the "Night of Broken Glass" -- Antisemitic riots in Germany and Austria during which synagogues were set afire by the Nazis, almost 100 Jews were murdered or seriously injured, and as many as 30,000 Jews were rounded up and sent to concentration camps

a) Judenrei
b) Kristallnacht

32. He coordinated with Heindrich, a nationwide night of antisemitic terror & pogrom - Night of Broken Glass
a) Goebbels
b) Eichmann

33. The Wagner-Rogers bill, an effort to admit 20,000 endangered _________refugee children, was not supported by the Senate in 1939 and 1940.
a) Polish
b) Jewish

34. On May 13, 1939, a cruise ship, _______,carrying 937 passengers, most Jewish refugees, left Hamburg, Germany, seeking freedom from Nazi terror; it was turned away from Cuba & the US
a) the St Louis
b) the Cuban

35. May 17, 1939: British government published its ____________ on Palestine barring Jews from Palestine - 75,000 immigrants to be permitted to enter; more by Arab consent.
a) White Paper
b) Black Paper

36. How hard to have visa Hessy Taft describes father's attempts to obtain visas for the family to emigrate from Nice, in the south of France

37. Charlene Schiff describes waiting for entry into the United States after the war because of U.S. immigration policy. Students may reflect on U.S. policy then and now regarding immigration

Copyright Fall 1999, November 2003, January 2004 Edith Shaked