SG# 8-a

Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945
Perpetrators, Collaborators, Victims, Bystanders, Resisters, Rescuers

Murderous Racism and Antisemitism - Bureaucracy of Evil. “You let us do it!”

A. The prewar period, 1933-39: Nazism - A Monolithic Culture

Dictatorship under the 3rd Reich. ‘Legal’ Dictatorship

Germany under National Socialism
Creating the Nazi Racial Totalitarian State - Perpetrators

Bauer, 101-104

Focus Questions.
How the perpetrators/Nazis under Hitler created a Nazi racial totalitarian police state, and changed Germany’s political, social, & economic structure

Objective. Students will obtain obtain a deeper understanding of the process of Nazification, in order to better understand how German society rallied behind the Third Reich.

I. Identify/Define

1933-45. 1933-1939. Nazism. Third Reich. National socialism. Gestapo, SA; Goering; Heinrich Himmler, SS; SD. Enabling Act; Der Stuermer; Dachau. Nuremberg rallies; Joseph Goebbels; the Night of the Long Knives; racial science; Hitler Youth; Fuhrer. Jesse Owens.

IV. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. When Hitler became Chancellor in 1933, Hitler eliminated all opposition, and built a ________. Domestically, during the next six years, 1933-1939, Hitler completely transformed Germany into a police state - Nazification
a) Nazi totalitarian state b) Nazi democratic state

2. His "1,000 Year Reich," mentioned in in his book, Mein Kampf, barely lasted
a) 5 years b) 12 years

3. Nazification of Germany under National Socialism/Nazism during the prewar period, ____
a) 1945-1950 b) 1933-1939

4. The racial ideology and policies of Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Worker’s Party from 1921 to 1945.
a) Communism b) Nazism

5. ____________: The Nazi political movement in Germany, led by Adolf Hitler. It ruled Germany from 1933-1945 and dominated Europe for most of World War II; based on extreme nationalism, territorial expansion and racism; it promoted antisemitism.
a) National Socialism b) Liberalism

6. Nazi Germany from the end of the Weimar Republic to the end of WW II; term refers to Hitler's name for his German Empire as a successor to the 1st Empire of the Roman Emperors (First Reich) and the Empire of Bismarck in 19th century Germany (Second Reich).
a) the Third Reich b) the Second Reich

7. Nazism demonstrated a demonic radicalism, because of deeply rooted German traditions absent in Italy’s Mussolini, were
a) Prussian militarism,
b) adoration of the power state, &
c) belief in the special destiny of the German Volk
d) all the above

8. The National Socialist German Workers' Party or NSDAP, known as the Nazi Party, controlled Germany from 1933 to 45. Nazis’ victims were Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, homosexuals, political prisoners, the mentally and physically disabled, the ______ and others.
a) Black b) Chinese

9. Although _________ is often perceived as the chief perpetrator, there were others. ___________ were Nazi party leaders, bankers, professors, military officials, doctors, journalists, engineers, judges, authors, lawyers, salesmen, police, and civil servants. ___________ committed crimes against Jews and other undesirables for many reasons. They believed in an ideology of racial cleansing. They profited financially, displaced their anger from their own failures, or were perhaps "following orders."
a) Adolf Hitler; Perpetrators
b) Adolf Eichmann; Bystanders

10. They did not carry out the persecutions and/or exterminations, but helped the effort. They could be people who turned in a Jew or a business who supported the nazis in some way.
a) rescuers b) collaborators

11. ________ are those who were chosen for persecution and or/extermination. Approximately 11.5 million people were killed because of Nazi genocidal policy.
a) Victims b) Collaborators

12. _________are those who were present in the midst of the nazi terror and the Holocaust, but did not participate in its execution. They did nothing to prevent or stop it either. Ordinary people who play safe, comply with law, stay involved, fearful to make a choice, docile
a) bystander b) resister

The 3rd Reich - a Terror Totalitarian State. The SS Police State

13. Among the first actions of Hitler, the new Chancellor was enactment of an Emergency Decree to eliminate political opposition from the Communists; it was the Nazi scheme to incriminate the communists
a) Reichstag fire, 2/27/1933
b) the Night of the Long Knives

14. On Feb. 28, 1933, Hindenburg signed an emergency decree ending civil rights, including freedom of the press & assembly; the decree is called euphemistically
a) "For the Protection of the People and State"
b) “Against communism”

15. Hitler also relied on terror to achieve his goals. For those who needed coercion, the Nazi total state had its ____ organizations/instruments of terror & repression in the Nazi hierarchy.
a) two
b) four

16. It was founded in 1921 as the Nazi Party militia, as an auxiliary police, fighting with opponents; wearing the Brown Shirt uniforms; by the end of 1933, it was four-and-a-half million men strong: the Nazi Storm Troopers (Sturmabteilungen) or the
a) SA.
b) NA

17. The German internal Secret State Police, aimed at any so-called enemies of the regime and could seize and arrest anyone at will without regard for court or law; it quickly expanded as an arm of the dreaded "black-shirts," S.S. -absorbed into SS by 1936
a) the Whermacht
b) the Gestapo

18. The German Secret State Police was organized by the Commissar of Prussian Police
a) Hermann Goering
b) Joseph Goebbels

19. After 1936, the German Secret State Police was under ______________’s command, a fanatical believer in Hitler’s racial theories. In 1929, this man set up the Elite Guard, black-shirted, about 100,000 members in 1933; they functioned on the basis of terror and ideology
a) Heinrich Himmler
b) Adolf Eichmann

20. _______: Important tool of Nazi terror; small ‘Elite Guard’ of disciplined, dedicated, & utterly ruthless men, indoctrinated in racial ideology, the black-shirted members formed the Protective Squad (Schutzstaffel); after 1934, they controlled the concentration camps
a) Gestapo b) SS

21. System of terror, established in 1934, under Reinhard Heydrich; a sub-structure within the SS, prying into the lives of all Germans using informers - the Security Service, or
a) SD - (intelligence branch of the SS)
b) SA - (Sturmabteilung or storm troops)

22. On March 23th, 1933, the Nazi-controlled Reichstag passed the Law for Removing the Distress of the People & Reich, removing the power of legislation from the Reichstag & gave Hitler, as Chancellor, the right to issue emergency decrees at will - dictatorial powers, the:
a) Enabling Act b) the Dictatorial Act

23. The 1st German concentration camp for political opponents, Jews & homosexuals, was set up on March 20, 1933, at
a) Treblinka
b) Dachau

24. Symbolic of the Nazi regime were the monster rallies staged at _____, held every September, combined the symbolism of a religious service with the merriment of a popular amusement. They had great appeal & evoked mass enthusiasm & excitement. 1000s roared, marched, & worshiped at their leader’s feet
a) Berlin
b) Nuremberg

25. On July 14, 1933, after all opposition political parties were outlawed. destroyed, Hitler proclaimed the ________the only legal political party in Germany. By the end of summer 1933, within 7 months of being appointed chancellor, Hitler & the Nazis had established the foundations for a totalitarian state.
a) Social Democratic Party
b) Nazi Party

Nazi Propaganda and Censorship. Cultural Nazification

26. Several weeks after Hitler was named Chancellor, ________________ was appointed the Minister of People's Enlightenment & Propaganda
a) Joseph Goebbels
b) Adolf Eichmann

27. The Nazis denigrated much of the Western cultural heritage of Europe and liberal, humanistic values. On the night of May 10, 1933, under orders from Goebbels, Hitler’s Minister of Propaganda and Popular Enlightenment, Nazis across Germany threw __________ into huge bonfires.
a) books
b) flags

28. The Nazi censors also burned the books of ________________, who had overcome her deafness and blindness to become a respected writer. German culture was nazified, forcing all of the arts to serve the new regime. Many great writers, musicians, artists, actors fled Germany or were silenced.
a) Helen Keller
b) Brigitte Keller

29. __________ were also brought under control of the Nazi totalitarian state; played an important role in spreading Nazi ideas - indoctrination of the youth.
a) Families
b) Schools

30. Textbooks, newly written, were brought in to teach students blind obedience to the party, love for Hitler, _________, patriotism above family loyalty, & conformity above individualism. Hitler & other Nazi leaders viewed the _____ not as a religious group, but as a poisonous ‘race,’ which ‘lived off’ the other races & weakened them.
a) tolerance; Italians
b) antisemitism; Jews

31. Nazi teachers in school classrooms began to apply the ‘principles’ of ______________ -a new course. They measured skull size and nose length, and recorded the color of their pupils' hair and eyes to determine whether students belonged to the true "Aryan race."
a) racial science b) German science

32. Stories call the Jews ‘devils,’ scum, _____________. Antisemitic book for children compares the ‘German’ & the ‘Jew,’ to demonstrate the biological inferiority of Jews, racial superiority of Germans, and that Aryan racial theories are scientific.
a) poison mushroom b) venomous rats

33. Intense ideological indoctrination took place within this compulsory Nazi youth group for German boys aged 6 to 18. A dagger engraved with ‘Blood & Honor,’ was the graduation diploma for ____________________.
a) Hitler Youth b) Nazi group

34. Schooling the leaders of the future: believe,_______, fight. Common flags, uniforms, meeting, & indoctrination gave a sense of identity to individuals, a sense of belonging, human warmth, but one that was cultivated to produce inhumane brutality.
a) question b) obey

35. On June 6, 1934, Hitler, following a bargain with the army high command, ordered the massacre of the Stormtroopers, streetfighters Brown-shirts (SA), the Rohm Blood purge or _______________, when Roehm and several hundred men in the S.A. and a number of marked men, branded as traitors, were murdered
a) the ‘Night of the Long Knives"’
b) the Great Purge

36. In the economic sphere, the regime pursued the use of public works projects to foster employment & end the depression; ___________dropped to 2,6 million in 1934, from 6 million in 1932.
a) unemployment b) inflation

37. On Aug. 2, 1934, with the death of President Hindenburg, Hitler became _____ ; he combined the offices of Chancellor & President - Hitler sole ruler. Army members were required to swear a new oath of obedience, not to the fatherland but to Hitler.
a) Head of State
b) emperor

38. A leader, especially one exercising the absolute power of a tyrant; Hitler's title as leader of the Nazi party, and Chief of the German state.
a) Fuhrer b) Kaiser

39. In Aug. 19, 1936, during the XI Olympic Games held in Berlin, Hitler made a hasty departure from the stadium to avoid offering congratulations to ________, the African-American track star, who was the undisputed hero of the games with four gold medals.
a) Jesse Owens b) Jesse Smith

III. Pictures (Bauer 161-64)

1. ‘Heil Hitler’ - Hitler and Nazi salute 161: What does it remind you in Roman history?
2. Propaganda poster, German children & Nazi flags 161-2: What does it tell you on Nazi ideology? Why the Berlin march is important?
3. Burning books 163: Explain its importance? Why a crowd?
German students in the classroom 164: What subject are they learning about?

Copyright November 2003 Edith Shaked
Nazification of Germany.
Holocaust Timeline.