II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945

Perpetrators, Collaborators, Victims, Bystanders, Resisters, Rescuers
Murderous Racism and Antisemitism - Bureaucracy of Evil. “You let us do it!”

SG#7 (7a & 7b)
Introduction. The Holocaust Era - what, when, why, who, how? Shoah
Nazi Fascism and the Modern Totalitarian State

I. Identify/Define

Holocaust, Shoah, Nazis, exclusion, Jews. Goldhagen. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. January 30, 1933-May 8, 1945. 1933-39. 1939-45. Nazi party.
7b. Totalitarianism. Nazism. SS. Propaganda. Gestapo. Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Communism, SA, dictator.

II. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The word “holocaust” is derived from the _____________holokauston, which originally meant a sacrifice totally burned by fire
a) Italian
b) Greek

2. The word ________ originally a Biblical term meaning widespread disaster, is the modern Hebrew equivalent for the term ‘Holocaust’
a) Sho’ah
b) Shabbat

3. This term when capitalized, means the almost complete destruction of Jews - the systematic ‘slaughter of 6 million Jews; and it is also employed in describing the annihilation of other groups of people in World War II (Hitler’s ‘final solution’ to the Jewish problem.’)
a) Genocide
b) Holocaust

4. Because of racial hatred, economic crises, human psychological, moral flaws, complacency, & complicity, about 6 million Jews & 5.5 million of ‘others’ (non-Jewish civilians) including Gypsies, Slavs, Jehovah’s Witnesses, political dissenters, homosexuals, P.O.W.'s and the mentally ill and infirm were murdered by _________________ between 1933 and 1945.
a) the Nazis, and their accomplices
b) the French & their accomplices

5. An estimate of one point five million ________ died during the Holocaust Era, 1933-’45
a) women
b) children

6. In Germany, a theory of human heredity had merged with the racist doctrine of volkisch nationalists, to form a political ideology of a nation based on ______
a) race
b) equality

7. After 1933, Germany created the political framework that made it possible to translate this ideology of inequality into a policy of ____________
a) inclusion
b) exclusion

The Holocaust - Shoah ‘The ‘War against the Jews’

8. At the center of the Holocaust Era, is the _______, a specific event in the 20th century history: the systematic, deliberate, state-sponsored, bureaucratic destruction of nearly 6 million Jews, a third of the world’s Jewish population, killed for no other reason than that they were Jews, by the Nazi regime & its collaborators, between the years 1933-1945.
a) Sho’ah
b) deicide

9. Because Nazi discrimination against the Jews began with Hitler's accession to power in January 1933, many historians consider this the start of
a) the Holocaust era
b) World War II

10. They were the only group that the Nazis sought to destroy entirely
a) the political opponents
b) the Jews

11. The first step of genocide is _____________ , treating certain groups of people differently. The second step is _______ such as the physical segregation of minorities in ghettos or setting up separate schools. The third step is _______, followed by _____ and ______ .
a) discrimination, isolation; persecution, dehumanization, violence
b) inclusion, equalization; imprisonment, torture, hanging

12. Genocide, the deliberate and systematic extermination of a group of people, is the ultimate expression of human __________.
a) love
b) hatred

13. The destructive will (Vernichtungswill) of the Nazis was aimed at the totality of the ______ as ______, and consequently the victims included women, children, and old people
a) Jews
b) prisoners

14. These victims, with the exception of Finland, were from every country/area defeated by or politically linked to the Germans:
a) Poland, Austria, France, North Africa, Italy ...
b) England, Australia, Japan ...

15. Daniel Goldhagen's Hitler's Willing Executioners aroused a great deal of debate in 1996 with its suggestion that __________were in fact responsible for the Holocaust, zealously carrying out orders to execute Jews rather than being coerced by their leaders
a) ordinary Germans
b) sadist soldiers

16. But the fact remains that antisemitism, much less ethnic hatred in general, was not unique to Germany. Jews were historically persecuted as
a) scapegoats
b) mentally ill

17. The emergence of ______________ as the dominant religion in Europe intensified the persecution of Jews, who were seen as outcasts, satanic, the deniers & "killers" of Christ
a) Islam
b) Christianity

18. A forged book, _____________, published in 1900 and proven to be a fraud led to the belief that there was a Jewish world domination plot
a) The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
b) World Domination by the Jews

19. The picture of the Jews encountered in Nazi propaganda was drawn, in part, from a long tradition of antisemitism; ‘Crucifixion,’ Modern Germany crucified by the Jew, in
a) the newspaper, Der Stuermer, 1939, no.4
b) the newspaper, Le Monde, 1951, no. 4

20. Hitler was able to exploit antisemitic feelings. His plan to do so was spelled out in ______ in 1924 (written during his short stay in prison for a failed coup)
a) Mein Kampf
b) Judenfrei

21. Hitler felt that the Jews were an evil that was at the root of Germany's problems & must therefore be eliminated, claimed that Germany never really lost World War I, but was stabbed in the back by a ____________/Communist conspiracy
a) Jewish
b) Protestant

22. The Holocaust would only be made possible because of the active participation or ____________ of many groups & individuals, 1st within Germany, then in Austria and later in other countries under Nazi occupation
a) passive compliance
b) active overwhelming resistance

23. The Nazis were not interested in _______ Jews to Christianity, because they viewed the Jews in purely racial terms
a) converting b) imprisoning

24. The Holocaust Era refers to the period from January 30, _____ when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, to May 8, _____ (V-E Day), the end of the war in Europe, during which there was an assault on Humanity, by the Nazi regime and their collaborators and followers
a) 1933, 1945 b) 1946, 1956

25. Two major periods of the Holocaust Era can be discerned, the ________________, from the Nazi accession to power to the beginning of Germany’s military expansion, and the ____________
a) Prewar period, 1933-1939. Period of World War II, Sept. 1939-May 1945
b) 1946-1949. 1949-1956

26. Systematic prejudice against Jews. Notice the absence of a hyphen (-)
a) Antisemitism
b) Antifascism

27. In the Nazi ideology, the pure, superior Germanic (Nordic, Caucasian) race
a) Aryan b) Caucasian

28. National Socialist German Workers' Party - the political party which emerged in Munich after World War I; taken over by Adolph Hitler in the early 1920's; the swastika as the party's symbol
a) the Nazi party b) the Swastika party


Nazi Fascism and the Modern Totalitarian State

29. A form of government in which all societal resources are monopolized by the state in an effort to penetrate and control all aspects of public and private life, through the state's use of propaganda, terror, violence and technology - demand for conformity.
a) Totalitarianism
b) democracy

30. Two types of totalitarianism can sometimes be distinguished Nazism & Fascism which evolved from "____________" extremism (drawn their popular support primarily from middle classes, to maintain the economic and social status quo); and Communism, which evolved from "_________" extremism (developed from working class movements seeking, in theory, to eliminate, class distinctions).
a) right-wing; left-wing
b) right-wing; central

31. Totalitarian regimes mobilize and make use of mass political participation, and often are led by charismatic cult figures. Examples of such cult figures in modern history are ______________ (Soviet Union), who led left-wing regimes, and __________ (Germany) and ______________ (Italy), who led right-wing regimes.
a) Josef Stalin. Adolf Hitler. Benito Mussolini
b) Alexander II. Ebert. Orlando.

32. Authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy, founded in Milan on March 23, 1919, by Benito Mussolini, emphasized intense Nationalism, productivism, anti-socialism, elitism, and the need for a strong leader.
a) Fascism b) Communism

33. German philosopher and poet best known for "Thus Spoke Zarathustra;" developed the concept of the "overman" (superman)
a) Henrich Heine b) Friedrich Nietzsche

34. Nazism refers to the totalitarian Fascist ideology & policies espoused & practiced by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Worker's Party from 1920-45; it stressed
a) superiority of the Aryan; extreme nationalism
b) its destiny as the Master Race to rule the world over other races
c) a violent hatred of Jews, which it blamed for all of the problems of Germany.
d. all the above

35. Nazism made use of ______________ to maintain control within the party, & to squelch opposition to the party.
a) democracy b) paramilitary organizations

36. Stormtroopers (also known as "brown-shirts") were the Nazi paramilitary arm under Ernst Rohm. It was active in the battle for the streets against other German political parties.
a) S.A. b) S.S.

37. Defense Corps; an elite guard unit formed out of the S.A. It was under the command of Heinrich Himmler.
a) S.A.
b) S.S.

38. The Secret State Police, which was formed in 1933.
a) the Gestapo
b) the Central Intelligence Agency

39. __________also placed an emphasis on sports, the massive use of propaganda to glorify the state, and the submission of all decisions to the supreme leader - Fuehrer.
a) Nazism b) Communism

40. A social, political & economic system characterized by the revolutionary struggle to create a society which has an absence of classes, and the common ownership of the means of production and subsistence and centralized governmental control over the economy.
a) socialism b) Communism

41. A ruler having absolute authority and supreme jurisdiction over the government of a state; especially one who is considered tyrannical or oppressive.
a) Dictator b) chancellor

42. A philosophy or system of government that advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of belligerent nationalism.
a) communism b) Fascism

43. The body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture.
a) ideology b) party

44. Individuals or groups who profess opposition to change in the established order and who favor traditional attitudes and practices, and who sometimes advocate the forced establishment of an authoritarian political order.
a) left-wing b) Right-wing

45. The systematic spreading of a given doctrine or of allegations reflecting its views and interests.
a) publicity b) propaganda

Copyright, Fall 1999, January 2004 Edith Shaked