I. Ideological Roots: Antecedents & Context - Historical Antecedents & Preconditions
Historic Roots of Nazism

SG# 2 Antisemitism up to the 17th Century. Why the Jews?

Religious Antisemitism. Dislike of the unlike; marginalization of the disliked other

Ancient & Christian antisemitism


Lecture 2a & 2b. Bauer, Who are the Jews? 13-35
Antisemitism in history: Ancient, Medieval Christian anti-Judaism. The historical, religious, and social roots of antisemitism. Judaism. History of the Jewish people and their relationship to the non-Jewish/Gentile world. History of the “Jewish Question,” and origins of the “Final Solution.”

Focus Questions

What was antisemitism in ancient, and Medieval Christian society?

I. Match the following Terms with their Definitions:

1. Torah A. Countries outside of Israel inhabited by Jews.
2. Kosher B. baptized Jews of Spain and Portugal who were accused of secretly
practicing Judaism. (In Spanish, "marrano" literally means "pig"
3. Rabbi C. a Jewish temple
4. Monotheism D. a religion based on the teachings of Christ & his followers
5. Diaspora E. bubonic plague; killed a quarter of people of Europe,1347-1350
6. Judaism F. Jewish scholar or religious leader - from the Hebrew for "my master”
7. Christianity G. the Jewish religion, based on the belief in one God
8. Blood libel H. Accusation that Jews used the blood of non-Jewish children
to bake matzah, their Passover bread.
9. Black Death I. Hebrew for "proper," correct," or "valid,"refers to food prepare
10. ghetto J. Law; parchment scroll containing the 1st 5 books of the Tanakh
11. Inquisition K. The belief in one God.
12. Marranos L. religious court to investigate and punish heresy among Christians.
13. pogroms M. a section of a medieval city where Jews had to live
14. synagogue N. mob attacks on Jewish communities

II. Identify/Define

Exodus, Judaism, Torah, 10 commandments; David, Temple, 2nd Temple. Hanukkah, Diaspora, rabbi. 4th century Christianity, deicide accusation, Satan/the Devil, Medieval Christian Church, Jew & moneylending/usury, religious Jew-hatred, yellow badge; blood libel, the Black Death (1347-50), poisoning wells, “Jewish Question,” 1492 Spain, expulsion; Inquisition, Marranos. Luther; ghetto, Kiddush Ha’shem, Sephardi, Ashkenazi, Yiddish.

III. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The Hebrew name for the first 5 books of the Bible, or the Law
a) the Torah
b) the Bible

2. In their earliest history, the Hebrews were organized as small Semitic bands under the leadership of patriarchal chieftains. An example of an early chieftain was
a) Solomon
b) Abraham

3. Hebrew leader who led the Hebrews out of Egypt - from slavery to freedom, c. 1500 bce
a) David
b) Moses

4. This book describes the escape of the Hebrews from Egypt & their wandering in the desert
a) Exodus
b) Numbers

5. Moral laws, revealed to Moses in Mt. Sinai, according to biblical tradition, c. 1500 bce:
a) The code of Hammurabi
b) the 10 commandments

7. Ethical monotheism
a) belief in many gods
b) Jewish form of monotheism that emphasizes personal moral conduct

8. System of laws, religion and culture of the Jews; with its concept of ethical/moral conduct monotheism, had a major influence on Christianity, Islam, and Western civilization
a) Paganism
b) Judaism

9. The most important contribution of the Hebrews to Western civilization:
a) Mosaic Law
b) the Old Testament/Tanakh
c) ethical monotheism
d) all of the above

10. King of Israel, Saul’ successor, moved capital to Jerusalem
a) David
b) Solomon

11. King Solomon’ s most popular contribution to the Hebrew society was to
a) build in Jerusalem the Temple, the symbolic center of the Hebrew religion & society
b) build Jerusalem

15. After the death of Solomon in 930 bce, c. 10th c. bce, his kingdom got divided into
a) Israel and Judah
b) Israel and Canaan

16. Jewish holiday which celebrates victory of Judaism over Hellenism, & freedom of religion
a) Hanukkah
b) Kippur

17. In 70 ce, they destroyed the 2nd Temple (only the western wall remained)
a) the Greeks
b) the Romans

18. Except for Israel, the term/concept that includes the countries of the world that made up the Jewish home (Countries outside of Israel inhabited by Jews)
a) dispersion
b) Diaspora

19. Religious leaders; replaced the priests after destruction of the 2nd Temple in 70 ce scholars learned in the Jewish scriptures and in commentaries on religious Judaic law
a) teachers
b) rabbis

Christianity & the Jews

20. In the 4th century, this religion became the official religion of the Roman Empire
a) Judaism
b) Christianity

21. Ancient Jew-hatred was based on anti-Judaism by Christians, specifically, murder of God:
a) the deicide accusation
b) the Jews as a special race

22. Period following the collapse of the western Roman Empire, from about 500 to 1500
a) the Old Ages
b) the Middle Ages

23. The leading institution in medieval society was the
a) monarchy
b) Christian Church

24. Because medieval society of the Latin Christendom was rigid, __________ were outsiders, barred from owning land and excluded from the craft guilds; because Christian Church forbade usury, they concentrated in trade and moneylending:
a) the Jews
b) the nobles

25. Hateful attitudes toward Judaism as a religion - religious Jew-hatred/antisemitism, in
a) Modern Times
b) in Ancient Times & in Middle Ages

26. One of the most pernicious legends spread in medieval Christendom, apparently motivated by the characterization of the Jew as the devil, was that of the false accusation of murder of Christian children for religious purposes
a) poisoning the wells
b) the blood libel - “ritual” murder accusation

27. They spread false tales and fables about the Jews
a) the lower clergy and popular preachers
b) the Gypsies

28. In the 13th c., in 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council required Jews to
a) wear a distinguishing mark on their clothing, or a yellow badge
b) to live in separated quarters

29. In the mid-14th c., contemporary reactions to the tragedy of the Black Death, included
a) extremes of both immorality & austere religious life
b) attempts to lessen God’s wrath by ascetism & physical beatings -flagellants
c) attacks against Jews, holding them responsible for poisoning the wells
d) all of these

30. Because Jews refused to change their ways, non-Jews wondered what they should do about them. “What should we do about this Jewish minority among us?” became:
a) the “Jewish Question”
b) the “Big Question”

31. In 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella ordered all Jews to become Christians or leave
a) France
b) Spain

32. During the Middle Ages, in Spain, this institution/court directed its infamy toward Jews who had been forcibly converted to Christianity (mainly after 1492 - Jews’ expulsion from Spain)
a) the Vatican
b) the Inquisition

33. A town areas where Jews were segregated
a) the Jewish Quarter
b) ghetto

34. Bauer writes about the experience of Jews during the Spanish Inquisition: “When faced with the demand to murder, to commit incest, or to convert, the Jew was prepared for _________, or Sanctification of the Lord’s - Kiddush Hashem. Thousands of Jews died in the name of Kiddush Hashem, a concept that was to be revived, in a different form, during the Holocaust. The missing word for Kiddush Hashem is
a) martyrdom
b) conversion to Christianity

35. To escape Christian persecution and Jew-hatred in ancient times and the Middle Ages, Jews did have an alternative, to stay alive
a) conversion
b) move to another city

36. Jews who converted in the 15th century in Christian Spain, and attempted secretly to adhere to their Jewish beliefs. These “new Christians,” were called _________ (Pigs) by opponents
a) Torros
b) Marranos

37. In 1492, Spanish Jews fled to the middle East, Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Germany, North Africa ... They became the source of the ___________ (Spanish) Jewry, speaking a Spanish-Jewish language called Ladino (written in Hebrew letters). The missing word for Spanish Jewry is
a) Spaniards
b) Sephardi

38. In Europe, another Jewish language developed from German with the addition of Hebrew:
a) Yiddish
b) Slavonic

39. German Jewry, and Jews living in Western, Central and Eastern Europe, are also called
a) Sephardi
b) Ashkenazi

40. Split in Christendom that came in the 16th century
a) the Reformation
b) the Renaissance

41. The leader of the Protestant movement in Germany was
a) Thomas More
b) Martin Luther

42. In his booklet Of the Jews and Their Lies, __________ proposed to set on fire synagogues
a) Calvin
b) Luther

43. In Latin Christendom, the imagery of the Jew as Satan/the Devil, derives from
a) early Christian antisemitism in the Middle Ages
b) modern antisemitism in the 19th century

44. During the Middle Ages, the solution to the “Jewish Question” were
a) conversion
b) expulsion
c) a & b

45. In the Middle Ages, Jews had been traditionally, persecuted & humiliated primarily for religious reasons; medieval Christian antisemitism, which depicted the Jew as vile and Judaism as repulsive
a) paved the way for modern antisemitism
b) ended with the Protestant movement and the split in Christendom

IV. Review Questions

1. Why did the Christian Church persecute the Jews? How & why did the Jews have an “evil” image?
2. Give examples of false accusations against Jews, and scapegoating them
3. What was the Justinian Code?
4. Why did Jews have no place in the old feudal economy in the Middle Ages? How was Jewish life restricted during the Middle Ages? What did they do? Where did they live?
5. What were the answers to the “Jewish Question?” until the 17th century?
7. What were the Spanish Inquisition, and the Marranos?

V. Map (Bauer 26 & 27)

1. The city of Munich is in
a) Germany b) Italy

2. The city of Vienna is in
a) Austria b) Russia

3. The city of Kiev is in
a) France b) Ukraine

4. The city of Salonica is in
a) Greece b) Italy

5. Austria is south of
a) Germany & Czechoslovakia
b) France & Italy

6. Poland is between
a) Germany & Russia
b) France & Italy

7. Hungary is between
a) Austria & Romania
b) France & Italy

8. Romania’s east border is
a) the Black Sea
b) the Baltic Sea

VI. Pecture (Bauer 161)

“This engraving shows a riot ...” Write a short paragraph on this picture, explaining “why the Jews?”. Use terminology (terms, words and concepts) from the lectures.

V. Questions on web sites material

* The Courage to Remember http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/resources/courage/p01.html
1. List the victims of the Holocaust and Shoah
2.The dates of the Holocaust were from ___________ to ______________.

*WHY THE JEWS? Patterns of Persecution
Fill in the blanks using the pictures and text.
3. During that time ______________ million Jews and millions of others were murdered.
4. Explain the statement by the historian Raul Hilberg
5. Why did millions of European Christians, for over 1600 years hate and persecute the Jews? 6. What kind of antisemitism was it?
*The Holocaust. http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/maps/oduleId=10005143
7. Define: Holocaust

B. *Christian persecution of Jews over the centuries
Look at the 3 pictures and answer the following:
1. What happened to the Jews during the crusades? What did they have on their head? Why?
2. What was the solution to the “Jewish Question” for centuries?
3. Page from the antisemitic German children’s book: What is the accusation against the Jews? How did the Nazis exploit that?

4. What was the legacy and the impact of Christian antisemitism during the Nazi period? (at the popular level, and the bystanders)

Copyright Fall 1999; Fall 2003 Edith Shaked
Credit/Source: The Holocaust - A guide for Teachers. http://www.remember.org/guide/