Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945
Perpetrators, Collaborators, Victims, Bystanders, Resisters, Rescuers

B. World War II, Sept. 1939-May, 1945: “New Order” & Holocaust
1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism - Lebensraum, Racism, Antisemitism & Dehumanization
2. 1941-45: Death by Design & Shoah

End of the Third Reich - The Last Years, 1943-45

* Shaked’s Online Lectures (OL), OL Unit 7 (Lectures 12, 13).
Bauer, chapter 13

I. Define/Identify:
Hungarian Jews; D-Day; death marches; Anne Frank; Allies; Eisenhower; April 30, 1945; V-E Day; May 7, 1945; Hiroshima; Yalta; United Nations; Nuremberg Trials; 1948 United Nations (UN) Commission on Human Rights.

II. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. By May 1943, Germans & Italians defeated, and the Allies are in control of
a) North Africa b) Germany

2. In 1944: Hitler takes over ____________and begins deporting 12,000 Jews each day to Auschwitz where they are murdered; by July 8, 1944, 437,402 Jews from that country were deported to Auschwitz. This is most likely the single largest deportation of the Holocaust.
a) France b) Hungary

3. June 6, 1944 ______ Operation Overlord, Allies amphibious landing on the beaches of Normandy Beach. More than two million Allied soldiers poured into France
a) V-Day b) D-Day

4. July 23, 1944: _______was liberated by the Soviets, and the other camps would soon follow
a) Treblinka b) Majdanek

5. Nov. 24, 1944, Himmler orders ________ at Auschwitz destroyed, fearing the Allied advance
a) crematoria b) prison

6. Dec 16th, 1944: final German offensive, halted at the battle of _____ -heroic defense by the Americans at Bastogne helped stop the Germans offensive
a) Paris b) the Bulge

The War ends. Liberation

7. In late 1944 the tide of the war had turned. Allied armies approached German soil, and the SS decided to evacuate. On January 18, 1945, those inmates capable of walking were evacuated & forced to march toward Germany under indescribably cruel conditions. Many died
a) in the crematoria
b) during the death marches

8. 1945 Allies converged on Germany: The Russians were continuing their drive in the east, advancing into the Baltic states, Poland & Hungary. When on January 1945, the Russians arrived only several thousand ill prisoners remained at _________
a) Treblinka b) Auschwitz

9. Camps like Bergen-Belsen, never intended for extermination, became death traps for thousands like _______________, who died of typhus in March 1945
a) Anne Frank b) Janus Kortchak

10. By April 1945, British, _________, & Russian troops were penetrating into Germany from east & west. Soviet forces entered Berlin
a) French b) American.

11. Allied troops who stumbled upon the concentration camps were ______at what they found
a) happy’ b) shocked

12. Upon encountering the Ohrdruf concentration camp, General Dwight D. _______, then Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe, was overwhelmed with emotion
a) Eisenhower b) Churchill

13. General Dwight D. also forced villagers neighboring the_________and concentration camps to view what had occurred in their own backyards
a) death b) prison

14. On the 30th of April, 1945, as the war appeared to be inevitably lost, _______ killed himself by a pistol shot.
a) Eichmann b) Hitler

15. ________ formally surrendered to the Allies on May 7, 1945. May 8 -officially "V - E Day". By the end of the war, more than 55 million had died and 35 million wounded.
a) Germany
b) Italy

16. Aug. 6, 1945 Convinced that an invasion of Japan might cause a million American deaths, Harry Truman ordered an atomic bomb dropped 1st on_____________
a) Hiroshima
b) Tokyo

17. During war, leaders of US, Great Britain & Soviet Union met at wartime conferences Feb. 1945, Shaping of the Postwar World: Allies, Franklin Roosevelt, US, Winston Churchill, Great Britain & Joseph Stalin, Russia, had met at ______in the Soviet Union
a) Yalta
b) Moscow

18. Allied agreed to form the_____________, an international peacekeeping organization
a) United Nations
b) League of Nations

19. July & Aug. 1945: Postdam Conference - Stalin, Truman, Churchill - confirmed Yalta agreements; to make agreements on demilitarization & de-Nazification of ____
a) Italy
b) Germany

20. Germany would be divided into eastern & western halves; to hold war crimes trials for Nazis; to make Germany pay reparations with the Soviets to receive the most; virtually gave the __________ control of Eastern Europe
a) United States b) Soviet Union

21. The 1945 _______ Trials -held to prosecute Nazi leaders for war crimes, pronounced Nazi leaders responsible for crimes against humanity
a) Berlin
b) Nuremberg

22. In 1948, _____________ -extermination of an entire people, has been condemned and declared illegal “crime under international law,”by the UN Commission on Human rights
a) genocide
b) ethnocentrism

23. After WWII, 2 new superpowers -military, political & economic giant, emerged: _____ & Soviet Union (SU)
a) France
b) USA

24. World polarized between these 2, who for next 45 yrs would dominate world affairs becoming locked in ______. SU dictatorship in east. Europe while US became guardian of Western tradition
a) cold war
b) hostility

25. Many of the colonies gain _______ during the post-war period; war accelerated breakup of Europe’s overseas empires
a) new lands
b) independence

26. The Hitler years demonstrated anew the power of the irrational & the precariousness of
a) civilization
b) urbanization

27. Personal accounts by survivors of the Holocaust are powerful. They connect us, person to person, with an era in history that is difficult, yet necessary, to
a) believe
b) comprehend

28. Indeed, for many years following the end of World War II, ________ were extremely hesitant to speak of their personal experiences. They focused instead on rebuilding their lives
a) prisoners
b) survivors

29. Elie Wiesel has been credited as the first to break the nearly twenty years of silence with his remarkable semi-fictionalized memoir, _______, a work inextricably associated with Holocaust literature
a) Souvenir
b) Night.

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Copyright Fall 1999, November 2003, January 2004 Edith Shaked