Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945
Perpetrators, Collaborators, Victims, Bystanders, Resisters, Rescuers

B. World War II, Sept. 1939-May, 1945: “New Order” & Holocaust
1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism - Lebensraum, Racism, Antisemitism & Dehumanization
2. 1941-45: Death by Design & Shoah

SG#13 RESPONSES: Rescuers. Bystanders - The "Sounds of Silence"

The road to Auschwitz was built by hate, but paved with indifference. IAN KERSHAW

* Bauer, Rescue? 303-331; 338-356
* Inaction.


Rescue. The role of Nazi collaborators; and the role of bystanders around the world who chose not to intervene in the persecution and murder of Jews and other victims. United States/World Response.

To examine the rescuers, and the nature of bystander behavior as it occurred in Europe and throughout the world and the impact of bystander behavior on the perpetration of genocide.

I. Identify/Define

Collaborator; bystander; popes; Righteous Gentiles. Yad vashem. Varian Fry. Denmark; Oskar Schindler. Le Chambon-sur-Lignon; Pastor Andre Trocme; Daniel Trocme. Sweden. Raoul Wallenberg. Kindertransports. Bombing Auschwitz. Wagner-Rogers Legislation. Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. Bermuda Conference. War Refugee Board. British White Paper of 1939. Pope Pius XII. Vichy government.

II. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The majority of European peoples and nations can be faulted with inactivity, & even at times
a) collaboration with the Nazis
b) overwhelming opposition to the nazis

2. There are many documented reports of the efforts made by individual non-Jews & whole nations who took great risks to save
a) Gypsies
b) Jews

3. The inaction and _________ of the world community reduced the extent to which the Jews could resist the Holocaust
a) complicity
b) indifference

4. Though Jews faced repeated obstructions to their efforts to emigrate from Nazi-occupied countries, steps were taken by some nations to rescue Jews, ______ being the archetypical example
a) France
b) Denmark

5. The systematic murders perpetrated by the Nazis were carried out with the help of local collaborators in many countries and silently accepted by millions of
a) resisters b) bystanders.

6. Most non-Jews neither aided nor hindered the "Final Solution." Relatively _____ people helped Jews escape
a) many
b) few

7. In a few rare instances, entire communities as well as individuals helped save Jews. They did so at tremendous risk. Their decency often exposed them to ______; the majority of people were indifferent or collaborated in the persecution and murder of their Jewish neighbors
a) prison
b) death

8. While world leaders, _______, presidents, prime ministers, and millions of people silently stood by while they saw Jews, Roma (Gypsies), and other "enemies of the Reich" being rounded up & deported, courageous individuals risked their lives to shelter the persecuted
a) popes
b) Gypsies

9. Few individuals had the courage to help by providing hiding places, underground escape routes, false papers, food, clothing, money, and sometimes even weapons.The Gestapo routinely offered ______ for those who turned in Jews who were hiding
a) a bounty
b) bread

10. It is imperative that the world recognize & remember the stories of the rescuers, to help understand how the human values of kindness, dignity and compassion stayed alive during the most trying of circumstances. Those non-Jews who worked at great risk to their personal safety to save Jews became known as the ‘____________’
a) Righteous Gentiles
b) Nice Persons

11. There is a museum in Israel, __________, devoted exclusively to the history of the Holocaust. The walkway which terminates at the museum entrance is lined with carob trees, each dedicated to the memory of a ‘Righteous Gentile.’
a) Yad Vashem
b) the Holocaust Museum

12. An unlikely American secret agent who traveled to France in June of 1940 to help smuggle Jews through the tightly controlled French borders, with money, & false passports. He is credited with saving the lives of two to three thousand people
a) John Smith
b) Varian Fry

13. A supposed Nazi sympathizer; outsmarted the SS & Gestapo by secretly harboring 1000s of Jews in his factory, and thus saved many targeted for deportation to the concentration camps
a) Oskar Schindler
b) Rudolf Hess

14. Residents of Huguenot village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, southern France, helped 1000s of refugees, including about 5,000 _____, escape Nazi persecution between 1941-1944
a) Jews b) Gypsies

15. _______ was the only occupied country that actively resisted the Nazi regime's attempts to deport its Jewish citizens
a) France
b) Denmark

16. In 1943, courageously acting on this tip from the German shipping official, within a two-week period, Danes from all walks of life mobilized whatever would float and ferried 5,900 Jews, 1,300 part-Jews, and 700 Christians married to Jews to safety in
a) Sweden
b) France

17. The Danish rescue effort was unique because it was nationwide. The Danes proved that widespread support for Jews and resistance to _____ policies could save lives
a) French
b) Nazi

18. Swedish diplomat; helped save Jews of Hungary in summer and fall of 1944. More than 30,000 Jews received special Swedish passports from him. The Soviet Union admitted that he had been arrested and that he died in prison in 1947. He is honored by having his name given to the street on which the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum resides.
a) Raoul Wallenberg b) Rudolf Hess

19. Britain gave refuge to children from Nazi Europe, saved by the __________- trains from Berlin, Vienna, Prague and elsewhere. The parents were left behind - most were killed
a) ‘operation children’
b) Kindertransports

20. People did not help the Jews because of
a) antisemitism
b) fear of reprisals
c) a & b

The World Response

21. Deteriorating economic conditions contributed to the political and social climate which both launched World War II and fueled the ___________which encouraged the destruction of the Jews of Europe
a) antisemitism
b) anti-nazism

22. Anti-Jewish sentiment & simple indifference to the plight of Jews, in France, England, and even the United States resulted in hundreds of thousands of European Jews being denied a safe haven, which meant virtually certain _______
a) death
b) prison

23. Despite the fact that the U.S. received early reports about the desperate plight of European Jewry, immigration ______ were never increased for the emergency
a) list
b) quotas

24. Wagner-Rogers legislation. Legislation was introduced in the US Congress in 1939 by Rep. Robert Wagner to admit a total of 20,000 Jewish children. The bill _____ in the House
a) died
b) passed

25. By 1942, many American newspapers were reporting stories about the mass murder of Jews. U.S. reconnaissance photos of the _____ camp in 1943 showed the lines of victims moving into the gas chambers, confirming other reports
a) Warsaw
b) Birkenau

26. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called for the death camp at _______ to be bombed. He was ignored
a) Auschwitz
b) Warsaw

27. Eventually, American President ________, under pressure from the public, agreed to issue a statement condemning the German government for its genocidal policy against the Jews
a) Roosevelt
b) Churchill

28. Despite a report in 1943 providing details about the Final Solution, it was not until January 1944, however, that President Roosevelt responded by establishing the _____________ as an independent agency to rescue the civilian victims of the Nazis
a) War Refugee Board
b) Evian Conference

29. The 1939 British white paper on _____, limiting Jewish immigration and the sale of land to Jews ... was in part an attempt to win Arab support in the inevitable war against Germany.
a) Palestine b) Egypt

30. Governments refused to get involved, because they
a) did not believe the Holocaust was occurring
b) had leaders which were anti-Semitic
c) a & b

31. Could actions of the Allies have prevented the _______ or limited the destruction of six million Jews and five million other innocent civilians?
a) Holocaust
b) Armenian genocide

32. The principal accusation leveled against Pope ____ is that, in the face of countless appeals, he consistently refused to speak out against the Nazis’ policy of annihilation.
a) Pius XII
b) Urban II

33. The drama, _______is a searing attack on Pope Pius XII whom Hochhut accuses of dereliction of duty. The author asks provocative questions about the church’s responsibility
a) The Deputy
b) the Vatican

34. Many other European governments not only complied with the demand of the Germans to deport Jews to the death camps but facilitated the
a) deportations
b) emigration

35. In France an armistice with the Nazi regime, was signed on June 22nd 1940. A government was formed in unoccupied France at Vichy. The Vichy government was dominated by advocates for _________ with the Germans
a) opposition
b) cooperation

36. One who cooperates with the action of an enemy
a) resister
b) collaborator

III. Study/focus/Discussion Questions

What did the worlds know about the Holocaust?

Discuss: The road to Auschwitz was built by hatred, but paved with indifference; ‘the Holocaust was a crime of indifference.

Discuss: "Is a bystander is guilty of the crime s/he stands by and lets happen?" What’s the relevant law in Arizona?

Debate the role of the United States government during the Holocaust

Compare the Bermuda Conference, April, 1942, with the Evian Conference, July, 1938. What was their message and their impact on the Jews and the Nazi regime.

Discuss the Bombing of Auschwitz.
How did the British government limit immigration?

Discuss the role of the rescuers and Denmark’s role.

Weapons of the Spirit (video)

Main sites.

Copyright Fall 1999, November 2003, January 2004 Edith Shaked