Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945

B. World War II, Sept. 1939-May, 1945: “New Order” & Holocaust
1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism - Lebensraum, Racism, Antisemitism & Dehumanization
2. 1941-45: Death by Design & Shoah


* Bauer 266-306
* Resisters, Rescuers, and Bystanders:
* Jewish Resistance.
* A Righteous Few: Survival in Hiding and Rescue
* Jewish Resistance.
* A Righteous Few: Survival in Hiding and Rescue
* Resistance and Rescue

Outcomes. Responses.
At the conclusion of this module students will be able to describe and explain the responses to the Holocaust, exploring the inter-relationships between the perpetrators, the victims, the rescuers, the bystanders and and the resisters.

Objective: To examine the nature of resistance both active and passive as it occurred in Germany, the ghettos, concentration/extermination camps, and throughout Nazi occupied/controlled areas. To question what enables individuals both individually (for example, individual rescuers) and collectively (for example, partisans) to resist evil/genocide.

Students will be able to discuss altruistic behavior and the various forms of resistance that occurred during the Holocaust. (credit: Linda Wolf

I. Identify/Define

Jehovah’s Witnesses; reprisal. White Rose; Musselmen; Final Solution; Hassidim; Emmanuel Ringelbaum; sabotage. Dr. Janusz Korczak; Judenrat; Warsaw Ghetto uprising; partisan. Treblinka; ZOB; Mordechai Anielewicz; Passover. Jurgen Stroop. Sobibor; Auschwitz. Hannah Szenes; Jewish Army. Allies. Tunisia.

II. Multiple-Choice Questions


1. The systematic murder of about 11 million civilians by the Nazis and their local collaborators in much of Europe, was silently accepted by millions of
a) resisters b) bystanders

2. Resistance against the Third Reich, & overt opposition was rarely wise because of the danger of _________ from the Germans to the community and the constant threats of deportation and on-the-spot death
a) exile b) reprisals (a great risk of immediate retaliation)

3. Despite the high risk of being caught by police with the help of their many informers, some individuals and groups attempted to resist Nazism even in
a) Italy b) Germany

4. They were a model of spiritual resistance, and they stood firm for their religious belief
a) Jehovah’s Witnesses b) the Gypsies

5. Many of them were put in concentration camps & marked with
a) pink triangular badges
b) purple triangular badges

6. The "________" movement was founded in June 1942 by Hans Scholl, a 24-year-old medical student at the University of Munich, his 22-year-old sister Sophie, and 24-year-old Christoph Probst; distributed anti-Nazi leaflets and painted slogans like "Down With Hitler!"
a) White Rose
b) the Red Tulipe

7. In February 1943, Hans and Sophie Scholl were caught distributing leaflets and arrested. Together with their friend Christoph, they were _______ four days later
a) freed b) executed

8. After the important Soviet victory at Stalingrad in early 1943, a serious assassination attempt was planned by a group of German military officers and carried out in 1944, against
a) Joseph Goebbels b) Hitler

Jewish Resistance against the Third Reich

9. Fake Nazi promises of resettlement, a lack of weapons & the continued hope of surviving the war & occupation, initially repressed ________resistance in ghettos
a) spiritual b) armed

10. Millions of Jews led a brutal existence in concentration camps, slowly wasting away as __________(apathetic prisoners like walking automatons) until they died.
a) musselmen b) slaves

11. Until as late as mid-1942, the Jews were unaware that the _________ was being implemented
a) Final Solution b) solution of emigration

12. The tactics of the Nazis were diabolic, adapted to the level of the Jews involved. The tragical result is that both the assimilated Western Jews and the _______ in the East were fooled
a) Poles
b) Hassidim

13. All forms of _______, a form of resistance, sustained life in the ghetto. Card playing was very popular, and actors, musicians, comics, singers, and dancers all entertained small groups
a) economy
b) culture

14. Historian ________ initiated and directed a collection of diaries and documents chronicling the life of Jews in Warsaw during German occupation
a) Haim Weizman
b) Emanuel Ringelblum

15. In a dehumanizing environment, many Jews continued their ________ secretly
a) economic activity
b) religious traditions

16. In the Warsaw ghetto, _________offered food at public and children's kitchens, distributed clothing and furniture, provided child care activities, helped refugees find housing, and performed other community work
a) the International Red Cross
b) self-help organizations

17. ________was a pediatrician and the head of an outstanding orphanage in Warsaw. When the children in his orphanage were deported to Treblinka, Dr. Korczak chose to go with them. He perished there with the children in August, 1942
a) Dr. Joseph Engel
b) Dr. Janusz Korczak

18. The penalty for possession of a radio was _____. Yet, in Lódz, an underground group operated a radio listening post for five years
a) exile
b) death

19. Jews created an ___________ as a way to resist the Nazis. There were illegal mills and workshops operating for the clandestine marketplace
a) underground economy
b) free market economy

20. Jews ______the operations of forced labor factories by working slowly or destructively--starting fires or purposefully damaging equipment that they were supposed to be repairing
a) repaired
b) sabotaged
21. In the Vilna ghetto as in many others, the ______ leaders taught survival in submission; general population accepted that ideology
a) Kapo
b) Judenrat

22. Polish & other non-Jewish sources were unwilling to provide ____ for the Jews
a) food
b) arms

23. Isolated by both the Nazis & the largely indifferent or _____ local non-Jewish population, starved Jewish communities could do little concerted activity
a) hostile
b) friendly

24. The Nazis practiced the doctrine of collective responsibility. As a result, few Jews even considered carrying out this active resistance for fear of ____
a) emigration
b) reprisals

25. Underground Jewish organizations sprang up in the ghettos to serve as alternatives to the _________, some of which were established with a military component to organize resistance to the Nazis
a) Judenrat
b) Lebensraum

26. Armed resistance took place within the ghettos and camps, and in collaboration with the resistance "on the Aryan side," which included _________
a) Kapos
b) partisan groups

27. In the ghettos, two divergent views of resistance emerged. One was that a last stand of honor and vengeance should be shown in the ghetto; the other view was to joined up with
a) the partisans in the woods
b) the Kapos

28. Many resisters left the ghetto to join existing partisan groups, in
a) Eastern Europe
b) Western Europe

29. Resistance became possible, for some at least, with the realization that death was inevitable, & evolved slowly. Time was needed to accept the unbelievable. Despite difficulties, there was armed resistance in many ghettos. The most famous act in
a) the Warsaw ghetto
b) the Vilna ghetto

30. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising came about as a result of the Jews learning that those being deported from the Ghetto were not being resettled, they were being sent to
a) Treblinka
b) Madagascar

31. In November, 1942, the Warsaw ghetto Jewish Combat Organization (_____) was formed
a) JCO b) ZOB
32. He was the brave commander-in-chief of this armed uprising
a) Haim Weitzman
b) Mordechai Anielewicz

33. By 1943, the ghetto half-million original inhabitants had been depleted to about 60,000 as a result of starvation, disease, cold, and
a) emigration
b) deportation

34. Desperate and with few weapons, the remaining Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto rose in revolt on the eve of _______, April 19, 1943
a) Passover
b) Kippur

35. The Jewish Fighter Organization (ZOB) led the insurgency and battled for _______. Himmler promised Hitler that the uprising would be quelled in three days. But the ghetto's inhabitants held out, until SS General Stroop ordered the burning of the ghetto to force out all resisters and remaining inhabitants
a) a month
b) 4 months

36. Fifteen thousand Jews died in the battle, and most of the survivors were shipped to
a) the death camps
b) the labor camps

37. After the war, Stroop was tried, sentenced & hanged for ‘_____’ committed during the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto
a) murder
b) crimes against humanity

38. On October 14, 1943, Jewish and Russian prisoners mounted an escape attempt in the death camp of ________. About 60 of 600 prisoners involved in the escape survived to join Soviet partisans. Ten S.S. guards were killed and one wounded.
a) Sobibor
b) Auschwitz

39. On October 7, 1944, one of the four crematoria at ______ was blown up by Sonderkommandos
a) Treblinka
b) Auschwitz

40. She was captured, tortured, and executed after parachuting into Yugoslavia and crossing the border into Hungary in an attempt to rescue Allied prisoners and her mother
a) Olga Weitzman
b) Hannah Szenes

41. In western Europe, there were acts of organized armed resistance. For example, in France, in the summer and autumn of 1942, the Jewish underground established
a) the Jewish Army
b) the maquis

42. Partisans interfered with enemy communication by cutting telephone, telegraph, and electrical lines. They ______ transportation links by blowing up bridges, roads, and railway equipment, a) sabotaged
b) destroyed

43. At the end of October 1942 the Americans informed the Algerian resistance of their planned landings on the shores of Algeria and Morocco. Of the 377 resistance members who seized control of Algiers during the night of November 7-8; 315 were ______.
a) Jews b) French

Copyright Fall 1999, November 2003, January 2004 Edith Shaked
Credit/source: Gary M. Grobman, The Holocaust - A guide for Teachers, 1990