Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945

B. World War II, Sept. 1939-May, 1945: “New Order” & Holocaust
1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism - Lebensraum, Racism, Antisemitism & Dehumanization
2. 1941-45: Death by Design & Shoah

The War Against Other Undesirable "Enemies of the State"

Additional Victims of Nazi Persecution

I. Identify/Define

African German children. "Black Disgrace" or "Rhineland Bastards". Sterilization. Gypsies. Pink triangle. Slav Untermenschen. Poles.

II. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. At the core of the Holocaust Era (1933-45) was the ideology of
a) hatred b) vengeance

2. Hitler had a vision of a Master Race of
a) Aryans that would control Europe
b) pluralism

3. Nazi hatred extended to include groups deemed racially or genetically "inferior," which was advocated by scientists who promoted "selective breeding," for the "improvement" of the human race or
a) eugenics b) lebensraum

4. 500 African-German children and 320,000 to 350,000 people judged to be handicapped either physically or mentally were
a) sterilized surgically or subjected to sterilizing radiation
b) exiled

5. Many Blacks and Gypsies were also sterilized and prevented from intermarrying with
a) Slavs b) Germans

6. During World War I, black African soldiers were brought in by the French during the Allied occupation. Some of these black soldiers married white German women that bore children referred to as the
a) "Black Disgrace"
b) "Rhineland Bastards"
c) a & b

7. About 400 children of black descent were
a) sterilized
b) killed -- many times without their parents' knowledge.

8. After 1939, in addition to the Jews, Nazis persecuted & slaughtered another
a) almost 6 million non-Jews
b) 1 million non-Jews

9. Many of these victims were
a) political opponents, & Gypsies,
b) Jehovah’s Witnesses, handicapped, & homosexuals
c) Eastern Slavs
d) all of them

10. Nomadic people, a dark-skinned, Caucasian ethnic group targeted by the Nazis, also called
a) Gypsies
b) Roma and Sinti
c) a & b

11. The Nazi regime continued the persecution of these nomadic people viewing them as
a) asocial b) racially inferior to Germans
c) a & b

12. Before the war, like Jews, these nomadic people were deprived of
a) their civil rights
b) deported to concentration camps
c) a & b

13. After the beginning of World War II, like the Jews, the Roma Gypsies were chosen for
a) total annihilation
b) slave labor

14. Many Gypsies in the east--Russia, Poland, and the Balkans--were shot by the
a) Einsatzgruppen
b) Poles

15. Since Catholic priests and Christian pastors were often influential leaders in their community, thousands of them were forced into
a) ghettos
b) concentration camps

16. Because Hitler's plan for a great Master Race had no room for any homosexuals, many males
a) were persecuted, tortured and executed
b) were sent into exile

17. In concentration camps, homosexuals were mistreated and tormented by other inmates; they were forced to wear
a) pink triangles b) black triangles

18. Christian Poles, Catholic priests, and other _________, notably 4 million Ukrainians and Byelorussians, were also primary targets of Nazi Germany hatred during World War II
a) Slavs b) Aryans

19. The Nazis considered the Poles and other Slavic peoples to be Untermenschen, or
a) sub-human destined to serve as slaves to the Aryan "master race."
b) supermen

20. Hitler quickly took control of Poland by specifically wiping out the Polish leading class
a) the nobility b) the Intelligentsia

21. Polish citizens were placed in slave labor for German farmers and factories or taken to concentration camps where many were either starved and worked to death or used
a) for scientific experiments
b) as doctors

22. Many husbands & wives of Jews in Germany were forced to choose between ______ or concentration camps. Hitler would not allow "inter-racial" marriages
a) death b) divorce

23. Communist and Socialist parties and members of the trade unions resisted the Nazi regime. During its twelve year existence, Dachau was always a camp for
a) Jews
b) political prisoners.

24. __________ were another category of people that Nazis deemed undesirable, and necessary for eradication. Nazis targeted numerous vagrants, prostitutes, alcoholics, and others who were considered unfit for society.
a) Asocials b) Slavs


Study Questions

1. How does the map of ‘The fate of the Roma’ B 221 reflect Nazi policy and ideology?

Research the fate of a variety of people involved in the Holocaust.
Directions: Listed below are two categories with the names of groups that the Nazi regime targeted during the Holocaust. Who were they? Define the distinction between the two categories: What explanation can you give for the discrimination they faced?
Category 1. Jews; Gypsies; Mentally and Physically Handicapped; Polish and Slavic citizens. Soviet Prisoners
Category 2. Homosexuals; Communists, Socialists, Trade Unionists; Jehovah's Witnesses.

Deathly Silence: Everyday People in the Holocaust

Copyright Fall 1999, November 2003, January 2004 Edith Shaked