Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945
Murderous Racism and Antisemitism - Bureaucracy of Evil
Perpetrators, Collaborators, Victims, Bystanders, Resisters, Rescuers

B. World War II, Sept. 1939-May, 1945: “New Order” & Holocaust
1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism - Lebensraum, Racism, Antisemitism & Dehumanization

2. 1941-45: Death by Design & Shoah

Shoah - The “Final Solution.” From Isolation to Shoah

Bauer 150-96;
The Holocaust timeline: (excellent);
The Holocaust & WEBliography:

Focus Questions

How did the Jews become victims?

I. Define/Identify

Holocaust. Operation Barbarossa. Final Solution. Einsatzgruppen. Baltic states. July 31, 1941. Babi Yar. Special actions. Annihilation centers. German indifference. Auschwitz. Pearl Harbor. Struma. Chelmno. Annihilation of the Jews. Denmark. Wannsee Conference. Eichmann.

II. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. It was the murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators; systematically implemented with all the legal, technological, bureaucratic & propagandist means available to the Nazi German state.
a) the Holocaust
b) the Nazi killing.

2. The _________________ of 1941 to 1945: the Nazis' comprehensive & systematic program to solve the "Jewish question" by murdering every Jew; all European & French North African Jews, initiated by Adolf Hitler in the summer of 1941; it was implemented by Himmler’s SS, when millions of Jews were sent directly to the gas chambers in death camps.
a) the ‘Final Solution’ b) the Nazi killing

3. Before the "Final Solution" was devised to murder all Jews in Nazi jurisdiction, the scheme the Nazis planned to rid their land of the Jews, to ensure the racial purity of Germany and to create lebensraum, "living space," for German nationals of "Aryan" blood, was
a) forced emigration b) ghettoization

4. There was not enough territory in Poland to spare for the Jews. In late May 1940, Himmler presented Hitler with a memorandum on the treatment of the population of eastern Europe that included the notion of expelling all the Jews to some colonial territory in Africa
a) Madagascar b) Corsica

5. In ______, the Nazis made plans for what they called a ‘final solution’ to the Jewish ‘problem.’
a) 1941 b) 1945

The Final Solution. Death by Design. The Einsatzgruppen

6. On June 22, 1941, Hitler ignored a non-aggression pact he had signed with Stalin in August 1939; & with operation Barbarossa, Germany invaded
a) the Soviet Union b) France ,

7. Immediately behind the invading forces, specially trained mobile assault units of the SS, killing squads, the ________, began the systematic murder of Jews
a) the Einsatzgruppen
b) the SD

8. By the end of 1941, Hitler’s forces had taken extensive areas of __________’s western empire, including most of the Ukraine
a) Russia/Soviet Union
b) Ottoman

9. In the Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) as well as in the Ukraine, local populations _____collaborate in the persecution of Jews. Confiscation of property, slave labor, random violence, and murder were commonplace.
a) did
b) did not

10. The specifically 4 trained murder units who followed invading troops to capture and eliminate Jews, communists, and other Soviet officials, were all under the general command of
a) Heydrich
b) Goebbels

11. On _____________S.S. Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich visited Goring and had him sign an authorization to prepare and submit "an overall plan of the organizational, functional, and material measures to be taken in preparing for the implementation of the aspired ‘final solution’ of the Jewish question,” the murder of all the Jews.
a) July 31, 1941
b) July 31, 1945

12. Hitler, distrustful of the will of his generals to carry out his intended ‘war of annihilation,’ appointed Heinrich ____________to carry out ‘special tasks’ on the eastern front.
a) Himmler
b) Goebbels

13. The procedure was similar throughout German-occupied Soviet territory. Local populations were encouraged to murder Jews; the Jews were stripped, shot dead & buried. Most famous (or infamous, as the case may be), is __________, near Kiev, where an estimated 33,000 persons, mostly Jews were murdered, on the 29th. and 30th of September 1941.
a) Babi Yar
b) Berlin

14. This, the most appalling massacre of the war, is often alluded to as a prime example of utter Jewish _____________ in the face of disaster.
a) helplessness b) choice

15. In sept. 1941, Nazis began using _______________: victims were shot or loaded into enclosed trucks modified for the introduction of carbon monoxide to asphyxiate its victims
a) gassing vans-trucks
b) gassing taxis

16. By 1943, over 1,400,000 Jews were executed in occupied Soviet Union. The killers used language to distance themselves, referring to these executions as "__________," so that they could distance themselves from it
a) special actions b) special killing

The System of Extermination. Mass Murder: 1942-1945

17. Despite the effectiveness of the Einsatzgruppen on the Russian front, there were problems with carrying out public mass extermination with demoralizing effect. Himmler suggested that a "more humane" and "rational" method of "disinfecting" the area was needed
a) the construction of special annihilation centers
b) gassing van-trucks


18. From 1942 to 1945, the Nazis implemented mass murder with a cold industrial efficiency. The system of execution of extermination was created wit the combination of
a) The physical setting of the concentration camp
b) the killing methods of euthanasia
c) the deportation programs
d) all the above

19. In relative secrecy, a bureaucratic apparatus could perform all the diverse functions necessary to uproot and ship to their death millions of people, because
a) they were detached from direct contact with the killing process .
b) they were inured to the notion that the Jews had to be removed one way or another,
c) a & b

20. The German population in general, accepting the notion of the Jew as an enemy against whom it was legitimate for the state to take preventive measures,
a) looked on with indifference
b) opposed the measures

21. The first gassing experiment was conducted in early September 1941, in
a) Auschwitz
b) Dachau

22. American President __________ & isolationism: Europe’s wars were of no concern to US
a) Franklin D. Roosevelt
b) Wilson

23. On Dec. 7,1941: Japan attacks __________ in Hawaii -American naval base, g, forcing US to enter the war against Japan & Germany, on December 11
a) Pearl Harbor
b) Toronto

24. The Allies, in 1941, consisted of the British Commonwealth, Free France, the United States
a) & the Soviet Union
b) & Italy

25. On Dec. 12, the ship ‘________’ leaves Romania for Palestine carrying 769 Jews but is later denied permission by British authorities to allow the passengers to disembark. In Feb. 1942, it sails back into the Black Sea where it is intercepted by a Soviet submarine & sunk as an ‘enemy target.’
a) St Louis
b) Struma


26. On October 23, 1941, S.S. head Heinrich Himmler issued an order down the Nazi chain of command which heralded a major change in Nazi policy with respect to the ‘Jewish problem.’ This shift in policy -no more force emigration- resulted in the
a) deportation of Jews to camps and ghettos in the East
b) exile to Madagascar

26. The first death camp, began full-time operations -the first gassing of Jews- on December 8,1941, at
a) Chelmno
b) Dachau

27. The Nazi war machine had limited resources, including slave labor, much of it Jewish. Even so, the Nazis made a decision that _____________ was a more important achievement than the value of their labor; and that the need for trucks and rail cars to carry the Jews to concentration camps and death centers more important than the need for transport for the war effort
a) the annihilation of the Jews
b) the annihilation of the handicapped

28. To accomplish efficiently the "physical extermination" of Jews required mass deportation & transportation of Jews to be sent to ghettos, concentration camps & killing centers. The Jews were informed that they were going to be
a) resettled for work
b) killed.

29. The deportees were forced into unheated _________ & squeezed in so tightly that most were forced to stand; many froze or suffocated to death
a) cattle cars
b) passenger cars

30. Nazi officer who traveled from country to country that was under German occupation to systematically plan the deportation of the local Jewish population to the death camps
a) Adolf Eichmann
b) Joseph Goebbels

31. In occupied countries such as Poland, Greece, _________, and Yugoslavia, the deportation of Jews to sealed ghettos as a holding area, to labor camps, and to death camps was facilitated by the cooperation of the government
a) France
b) England

32. This country’s government and populace were exemplary in their heroism in saving Jews
a) Denmark
b) England

33. The plan for the total annihilation of European & North African Jewry was formalized at
a) the Wannsee Conference in Berlin on January 20, 1942.
b) the Berlin Conference

34. The one-day conference was convened by ____________ Security Service head -head of the S.S. main office, & S.S. Chief Heinrich Himmler's top aide, to discuss the administrative policies for implementing the Final Solution.’ (Most of those attending were already aware that Jews were being killed, but the full scope of the mass - murder program was only now revealed)
a) Reinhard Heydrich
b) Joseph Goebbels

35. At this conference, Chief Heinrich Himmler's top aide, & his Jewish expert, ____________ met with the state secretaries of the ministerial bureaucracy
a) Adolf Eichmann
b) Joseph Goebbels

36. The purpose of the meeting was to coordinate the Nazi bureaucracy required to carry out the official state policy of the "Final Solution," which provided for:

a) Mass deportation of Jews to killing centers.
b) Immediate death for those who were unable to work or the very young
c) Decimation through forced slave labor & eventual death for the remnant
d) all the above

37. At this meeting, the Nazi officials agreed to SS plans for the transport and destruction of ____ million Jews, from Ireland to the Urals and from Scandinavia to Spain & _______, were the intended victims
a) eleven, North Africa
b) eleven, North America

Copyright Fall 1999, November 2003, January 2004 Edith Shaked
Credit/source: Gary M. Grobman, The Holocaust - A guide for Teachers, 1990
The Holocaust & WEBliography: