Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945
B. World War II, Sept. 1939-May, 1945: “New Order” & Holocaust

1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism - Lebensraum, Racism, Antisemitism & Dehumanization

TEN- a
The War Against the Jews - Ghettoization

Ostracize, Isolate, Annihilate - Policy, Bureaucracy, & Technology

Bauer 150-96;
The Holocaust timeline: (excellent);
The Holocaust & WEBliography:

Focus Questions

How did the Jews become victims?
What were the successive steps taken in isolating the Jews?

I. Define/Identify

Poland; Yiddish. Heinrich Himmler; General Government. Einsatzgruppen. Reinhard Heydrich; dehumanization; ghetto; deportation; Adolf Eichmann; Judenrate. Warsaw ghetto. Janusz Korczak; Theresienstadt ghetto.

II. Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The ‘War Against the Jews’ was launched simultaneously with and parallel to
a) World War II b) World War I

2. The push into _______ in September 1939, & the progressive subjugation of surrounding societies would bring million of ‘unwanted’ Jews into the Nazi sphere of influence.
a) Poland b) France

3. The onset of war served as a smokescreen for the evolution of deportations, ghettos &
a) concentration camps
b) expulsion

4. In Germany & all the countries occupied & controlled by the Germans, or allied with Germany, Jews were required to wear distinguishing markings, _____________
a) the Star of David
b) the Star of Saul

The Jews in Poland - History of Polish Jewry

5. From the medieval German vernacular, ______ was developed & became the universal language of central and eastern European Jews.
a) Yiddish
b) Ladino

6. ___________ had long been evident in Poland. Jews were not considered Poles and, as in Nazi Germany, were defined as a race
a) Antisemitism
b) Tolerance

7. With conquest of Poland, an additional _________ were brought under German control
a) 2 million Polish Jews
b) 10 million Polish Jews

Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland - German Plan for Jewish Containment

8. Sept. 29: Nazis & Soviets divide up Poland. The central section (with Lublin, Krakow & Warsaw) was set aside to become a German colony, the ‘General Government,’ under the Nazi governor,_____________; 1.3 million Jews lived there.
a) Hans Frank
b) Hans Friedman

9. _________Gestapo chief & head of the SS with overall responsibility for implementation of the ‘Final Solution of the Jewish Question,’ was appointed to take measures to strengthen German ethnicity in the occupied territories & to create lebensraum, or living space for German citizens.
a) Heinrich Himmler
b) Joseph Goebbels

10. The Gestapo chief & head of the SS created special task forces of the Security Police within the SS, ___________special action squads, ‘mobile killing units’, charged with liquidating all political enemies of the Reich; at work just behind the front lines
a) the Einsatzgruppen
b) S.A.

11. He placed them under the command of Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reich Security Main Office & Chief of the Security Police, who was entrusted with devising method to deal with Poland’s _____
a) handicapped
b) Jews

12. For Germany two wars commenced: one against western European _________ and the other against the Jews
a) Allies
b) Axis

13. A savagely repressive regime was implemented in Nazi Poland: a series of economic measures robbed the Jews of any means of livelihood; an unrelenting policy of humiliation, discrimination, & persecution resulted in
a) dehumanization
b) expulsion

The Jewish Question. Isolation, deportation, ghettoization & Destroy

14. As soon as the Germany army entered Poland in September 1939, Jews were forced to
a) work b) emigrate

15. Confronted with ‘problem’ of millions of Polish Jews now under German control, Himmler directed _______________Chief of the German Security Police, his top aide, to implement a policy that became the penultimate stage in the evolution of the ‘Final Solution.’
a) Reinhard Heydrich
b) Adolf Eichmann

16. On September 21, 1939, this man issued a decree outlining the policy of the internment of Poland’s Jews in ________near railroads.
a) ghettos
b) jail

17. Shortly after the occupation of Poland, the Nazis introduced a policy of _______ of Jews into occupied Poland, which sometimes involved the uprooting of whole communities.
a) deportation b) expulsion

18. Most Polish Jews got to the ghettos by
a) cattle trains b) walking

19. The chief engineer in charge of the system that transported Jews from all points of Europe into Nazi hands was
a) Adolf Eichmann
b) Joseph Goebbels

20. Nov 23, 39: ___ law requires Polish Jews to wear a white armband with a yellow Star of David, to make identification easier when the Nazis began issuing orders establishing ghettos.
a) Reich b) French

21. Dating from medieval times, the European Jewish ______ was a traditional solution for isolating Jews & separating them from Christians.
a) ghetto b) neighborhood

22. Polish cities under Nazi occupation (as Warsaw & Lodz) had Jews confined in sealed ghettos, mainly to
a) isolate & concentrate Jews in small areas
b) remove them from the general population
c) a & b

23. The ghettos served as excellent fodder for forced free labor; its inhabitants in many areas were forced to become _______ for German industry in factories built alongside or within ghetto walls.
a) slaves b) paid

24. Heydrich also orders a census -identifying the Jews, & the establishment of Jewish administrative Councils, ______within the ghettos to implement Nazi policies & decrees.
a) Judenrate b) the Elders of Sion

25. Jewish administrative Councils, or Judenrate, within the ghettos, were generally made up of
a) elders,
b) leading rabbis
c) influential personalities in the Jewish communities
d) all the above

26. These councils were responsible for
a) registering all Jews; providing an accurate survey of all Jewish property
b) managing housing, health, police, and sanitation in the ghetto
c) providing slave labor
d) all the above

Days of Nightmare
(Dec. 1939- March 1942)

27. The first major ghetto, with a population of over 200,000 by the end of 1941 including 5,000 Gypsies, was created by the Nazis in 1940, in _______
a) Lodz b) Paris

28. The largest ghetto with more than 500,000 people was the
a) Warsaw ghetto b) Paris ghetto

29. The Nazis sought to create horrible inhuman conditions in the ghetto. Deliberate policy for the ghettos, and other factors caused daily fatalities in the ghetto:
a) overcrowding, lack of fuel & sanitation
b) malnutrition, starvation, and disease
c) a & b

30. Despite the threat of death for such activities, the ghetto’s inhabitants kept their spirit by
a) creating underground social, religious, educational, and political organizations
b) publishing newspapers were published, classes held,
c) conducting religious services
d) all the above

31. He convinced poets, artists, physicians, journalists, social scientists, & rabbis to contribute diaries, & reports,to preserve the history of life in the ghettos & document Nazi inhumanity
a) Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum b) Adolf Eichmann

32. Head of a Jewish orphanage in Warsaw. Despite temporary exemption from deportation to Treblinka, he voluntarily went to his death with the children when they were deported
a) Janusz Korczak (1879-1942)
b) Emmanuel Ringelblum (1879-1942)

33. On November 24, 1941, in an 18th century fortress town near Prague, in northwestern Czechoslovakia, the Nazis developed their "model" ghetto, to counter rumors in the international community about the poor conditions in the ghettos.
a) Theresienstadt ghetto
b) Warsaw ghetto

34. The Nazis tried to use their "model" ghetto, to hide the truth of the murder of the Jews, and in July 1944 they produced a documentary propaganda film
a) showing happy Jews in a Jewish city
b) showing the Warsaw ghetto

35. By the summer of 1941, 3 million Jews would be trapped in Poland, & were forced into roughly 400 new
a) ghettos b) jails

Copyright Fall 1999, November 2003, January 2004 Edith Shaked