Introd: 3rd Reich & Holocaust Era, Jan. 1933-May ‘45

Shoah Hebrew=widespread disaster=Holocaust=genocide
Nazis, accomplices killed 6 million Jews+5 1/2 m. Gentile
Exclusion=German policy with racial inequality ideology
Jews: the only group that Nazis sought to destroy entirely
Ordinary Germans responsible = Goldhagen’s thesis
Protocols: forged book on Jewish world domination plot
Nazi racial antisemitism, propaganda manipulated masses
Propaganda: systematic spread of doctrine/allegations
Prewar period 1933-39. WWII period Sept.‘39-45
Nazi party=
National Socialist German Worker’s Party
govt all resources controlled by state -->
Fascism/Nazism=extreme right dictatorship & nationalism
Communism-Stalin in Russia=left wing
Dictator: absolute ruler, tyrannical oppressor
Nazism=Aryan rule, extreme nationalism, Jew-hatred=
fascist racial ideology/dictatorship Hitler 1933-45=12 yrs
not the 1000 yrs Reich in Mein Kampf

Prewar 1933-39: Racial totalitarian state. Nazification
Domestic Policy in National Socialist Germany

Nazi instruments of terror & ruthless dictatorship

S.A: storm troops#polit. parties, Rohm, brown shirts, 1921
elite guard, black-shirts 1929, Heinrich Himmler
Gestapo: Secret State Police,1933 Hermann Goering
SS Security service 1934, terror, Reinhard Heydrich
1st concentration camp 3/20/33, opposition clergy
No opposition from Pope in 1937 to antisemitic policy
2/27/1933 Reichstag fire blamed on communists
Enabling Act
3/23/33 H. dictator, emergency decrees
Nuremberg rallies Sept. mass enthusiasm to leader
J. Goebbels minister of enlightenment & propaganda
May ‘33 trade unions banned; books burning.

Nazification of education & creation of perfect Nazi

Racial science new school course about different races
Hitler’s Youth boys 6-18 yrs-old; believe, fight, obey
8/33 Nazi party the only legal party
6/30/34 Night of the Long Knives - purge of S.A.
8/34 H. Fuhrer=Chancellor+president, Hindenburg dead
3rd Reich begins; new obedience oath to Hitler
1935: persecution of opponents, homosexual ... intensifies
‘35 Triumph of the Will, Leni Riefenstahl’s propaganda
8/19/36 Olympic games: Jesse Owens 4 gold medals

Deadly philosophy - Racial Purity

Rudolph Hess: National Socialism = applied biology
Nazi ideology -vision of racial pure Aryan society, spread
1933: racial hygiene programs to weed out unfit, racially and genetically inferior, useless mouths=handicapped, insane, criminals - no right to live ...
Life unworthy of life” -
for pure Aryan race
Eugenics: study of racial differences, also popular in US
Forced sterilizations 1933-35 laws for ‘selective breeding’ improve human race, limit undesirable, hereditary diseases
By 1937 some 200,000 persons were sterilized
Euthanasia: ‘mercy killing’ by lethal injections or gas of handicapped & unfit to live, to strengthen ‘master race’
Sept. 1, 39 H.’s order ‘granting’ them right to die
Score of doctors participated in these ‘special treatment’