I. Ideological Roots: Antecedents & Context - Historical Antecedents & Preconditions
Historic Roots of Nazism
SIX Rise of Hitler. Nazism (1918-Jan. 33). Nazi Racial Ideology
specific German development made the rise of Nazism an unprecedented event ... 1
The Nazis. http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/nz.html
During the fourteen years following the end of World War I, 1918-32, the Nazi party grew from a small political group to the most powerful party in Germany. Hitler, a charismatic, Austrian-born demagogue, rose to power in Germany during the 1920s and early 1930s at a time of social, political, and economic upheaval (The failure of the democratic Weimar Republic). Failing to take power by force in 1923, he eventually won power by democratic means. Nazism triumphed in 1933.
The Nazi regime won power in a democracy. It took advantage of selected elements of German history, from militarism & nationalism to the weakness of the Weimar Republic, much as it played upon the social shocks Germany had recently suffered, including defeat in war, failed revolutions, clashing ideologies, & an economic depression that brought the most extensive unemployment in Europe.
Instructional Objectives - Students will learn:
1. Facts about Hitler's life and the historical events which occurred during that time.
2. Hitler's view of history, his theory of race, and his political goals - Racial ideology.
3. Hitler 's use of antisemitism to advance his career and to consolidate power.
Students will be able to describe and assess:
- how the economic & political conditions after Germans defeat in World War I, led to despair & hopelessness among Germans, & to different social groups to support Nazis.
- the early life of Adolf Hitler through 1923, and explain how it influenced his world-view, his antisemitism and racial nationalism
1. How the Final Solution Came About? How does a society get to this point?
2. How an antisemitic norm translated itself into the actual murder?
3. How could they? How does ideology turn into bullets or poison gas?2
4. What were the factors that produced National Socialism & Hitlers ideology
5. Describe and explain the national and international factors that produced Nazism/National Socialism, contributed to the failure of the democratic Weimar Republic, and led to the rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party.
6. Describe and explain Nazi racial ideology .
1. Identify and evaluate the factors that produced Nazism/National Socialism, and contributed to the rise to power of Hitler and the Nazi Party (how did the Nazis used the political, social, and economic instability that plagued Germany and the Weimar Republic between 1918 and 1933 to their advantage in their rise?)
2. Who was Adolf Hitler? Discuss aspects of Hitlers early life - Hitlers background. Why do you think the Nazi party ideology appealed to him?
3. Describe and explain the humiliation of Germany in World War I, and the nationalistic feelings that Hitler reawakened in different German groups with his speeches (loss of face in the community of nations; 1929 financial collapse and Depression; power struggle -communists, capitalists, socialists; fear of a communist revolution; unstable coalition government; fear of change).
4. What were the main beliefs of Hitler and the Nazi party? What were the beliefs, and vision of Adolph Hitler/the Nazi Party? Discuss Hitler and Nazi ideology.
Discuss Hitlers antisemitism. Describe Hitler's views about the Jews and how he came to hold these views.
Analyze and evaluate Hitlers antisemitic views as they are expressed in Mein Kampf
When Hitler blamed Jews for communism and democracy and capitalism and socialism, how was he contradicting himself?
What were the intellectual, religious, and ideological roots of Nazi racial ideology? How did the Nazis promote them?
Name three of Hitler's foreign policy goals, as outlined in Mein Kampf.
What is the Aryan superiority myth?
What was the Protocols of the Elders of Zion? How did Hitler use it?
Who was blamed for Germanys failures?
How did Hitler explain the German defeat in the war?
5. Why was it significant that Hitler and the German Workers' Party were able to purchase a newspaper? Why was it significant that The Protocols were published in a newspaper? How influential are newspapers in shaping the opinions of those who read them?
6. What was the "Free Corps" and what role did it play during the political upheavals in post-World War I Germany? Why did ex-soldiers join the Free Corps?
7. What made people want to support Hitler? What was the appeal of the Nazis? (strong message, authoritarian rule, nationalism, glorious master plan, propaganda and pageantry, sense of belonging; emphasis on family, morality; work; scapegoating).
8. When and how did the Nazis begin to gain power? What were the economic conditions in Germany (during Hitler's rise to power) that eventually destroyed the Weimar Republic? the economy of pre-World War II twentieth-century Germany as a contributing factor to Hitlers success. Why was the Weimar democracy unable to function from 1930-1933?
How long did the 1st Reich last? the 2nd Reich? the Weimar Republic?
Why did President Hindenburg offer the Chancellorship to Hitler?
Hitler Rise to Power
19th century context: radical ideas of extreme nationalism, territorial expansion and racism.
Many events combined to pave the way from those radical ideas to Nazism and
many factors contributed to the climate that permitted the Holocaust3 :
* Germanys DEFEAT in WWI and what was perceived as an unjust peace treaty, and unfair financial burden; the defeat left German people demoralized & without strong government - Political problems
* LOSS OF FACE in the community of nations; the "dictate" of the peace conference, and the Treaty of Versailles;
* the DOLCHSTOSSLEGENDE (stab in the back) myth;
* the widespread opinion that the Weimar Republic was an inferior form of regime imposed on the Germans
- 1923 inflation drove Germany to near economic collapse.
* FINANCIAL COLLAPSE in 1929 & depression which left economic ruin, as well as political instability. During the worldwide economic depression that began in 1929, banks & businesses failed & unemployment soared in Germany - social and economical crisis
* POWER STRUGGLE between Communists, capitalists, and socialist.
The Weimar Republic, 1918-932 - WR government was seen as weak & ineffective
* FEAR OF COMMUNIST REVOLUTION similar to that in Russia loomed ever menacing; 1919: Communist uprisings broke out in several German cities
* INABILITY TO FORM A STABLE GOVERNMENT. Rule was often by emergency decree. Elected officials couldnt rule without coalitions. Elections were often and violent.
- Democracy fails
- FEAR OF CHANGE brought about by a more liberal modern age.
3. Antisemitic policy
- Hitler & the Nazi Party blamed Germanys problems on the Jews and claimed that the Germans were a superior people. These racist ideas led to extreme nationalism.
II. Major Events
1923 Nazis fail in attempt to overthrow the Bavarian government. Hitler is jailed and writes Mein Kampf.
1933 Hitler become German chancellor. Third Reich is created, and Hitler transforms Germany into a totalitarian state.
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
Adolf Hitler is Born - April 20, 1889
Hitler's Boyhood - 1895 - 1903
Hitler's Father Dies - January 3, 1903
Hitler Fails Art Exam - October 1907
Hitler's Mother Dies - December 21, 1907
Hitler is Homeless in Vienna - 1909 - 1913
Hitler in World War One - 1914 - 1918
War Ends with German Defeat - November 11, 1918
Hitler Joins German Workers' Party - 1919
Nazi Party is Formed - 1920
Hitler Named Leader of Nazi Party - July 1921
The Beer Hall Putsch - November 9, 1923
Hitler on Trial for Treason - February 26, 1924
Hitler's Book "Mein Kampf"
A New Beginning - February 26, 1925
The Quiet Years - 1926 - 1929
Great Depression Begins - October 29, 1929
Germans Elect Nazis - September 14, 1930
Success and a Suicide - 1931
Hitler Runs for President - 1932
The Republic Collapses
Hitler Named Chancellor of Germany - January 30, 1933
Hitler's Early Life - Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) (H) was born on April 20, the 4th child of Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Hitler in the Austrian town of Braunau. Two of his siblings died from diphtheria when they were children, and one died shortly after birth. Alois was a customs official, illegitimate by birth, who was described by his housemaid as a "very strict but comfortable" man. Young Adolf was showered with love and affection by his mother.
When Adolf was three years old, the family moved to Passau, along the Inn River on the German side of the border. A brother, Edmond, was born two years later. The family moved once more in 1895 to the farm community of Hafeld, 30 miles southwest of Linz. Another sister, Paula, was born in 1896, the sixth of the union, supplemented by a half brother and half sister from one of his father's two previous marriages.
Following another family move, H. lived for 6 months across from a Benedictine monastery. The monastery's coat of arms' most salient feature was a swastika. As a youngster, H.s dream was to enter the priesthood. While there is anecdotal evidence that H.'s father regularly beat him during his childhood, it was not unusual for discipline to be enforced in that way during that period. By 1900, H.'s talents as an artist surfaced; did well enough in school to be eligible for either the university preparatory gymnasium or the technical/scientific Realschule. Because the latter had a course in drawing, Adolf accepted his father's decision to enroll him in the Realschule. He did not do well there. Adolf's father died in 1903 after suffering a pleural hemorrhage. Adolf himself suffered from lung infections, and he quit school at the age of 16, partially the result of ill health and partially the result of poor school work.
In 1906, Adolf was permitted to visit Vienna, but he was unable to gain admission to a prestigious art school. His mother developed terminal breast cancer and was treated by Dr. Edward Bloch, a Jewish doctor who served the poor. After an operation and excruciatingly painful and expensive treatments with a dangerous drug, she died on December 21, 1907.
*Hitlers Antisemtism. H. spent 6 years in Vienna, living on a small legacy from his father & an orphan's pension. Penniless by 1909, he wandered Vienna as a transient, sleeping in bars, flophouses, and shelters for the homeless, including, ironically, those financed by Jewish philanthropists. It was during this period that he developed his prejudices about Jews, his interest in politics, and debating skills. According to John Toland's biography, Adolf Hitler, two of his closest friends at this time were Jewish, and he admired Jewish art dealers and Jewish operatic performers and producers. However, Vienna was a center of antisemitism, and the media's portrayal of Jews as scapegoats with stereotyped attributes did not escape Hitler's fascination.
Hitler was influenced by the German nationalists & racist climate in Austria at the end of the 19th century: from Karl Lueger, leader of the antisemitic Christian-Social party & mayor of Vienna, he took the idea of mass support; from Georg von Schonerer, German nationalism; from Lanz, racism, pure Aryan, sterilize others.4
In May 1913, H., seeking to avoid military service, left Vienna for Munich, capital of Bavaria, following a windfall received from an aunt who was dying. In January, the police came to his door bearing a draft notice from the Austrian government. The document threatened a year in prison and a fine if he was found guilty of leaving his native land with the intent of evading conscription. Hitler was arrested on the spot and taken to the Austrian Consulate. Upon reporting to Saltzburg for duty, he was found "unfit...too weak...and unable to bear arms."
Hitler's World War I Service -When World War I was touched off by the assassination by a Serb of the heir to the Austrian Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Hitler's passions against foreigners, particularly Slavs, were inflamed. He was caught up in the patriotism of the time, and submitted a petition to enlist in the Bavarian army.
After less than two months of training, Hitler's regiment saw its first combat near Ypres, against the British and Belgians. Hitler narrowly escaped death in battle several times, and was eventually awarded two Iron Crosses for bravery. He rose to the rank of lance corporal but no further. In October 1916, he was wounded by an enemy shell and evacuated to a Berlin area hospital. After recovering, and serving a total of four years in the trenches, he was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack in Belgium in October 1918.
Communist-inspired insurrections shook Germany while Hitler was recovering from his injuries. Some Jews were leaders of these abortive revolutions, and this inspired hatred of Jews as well as Communists. November 9th, Kaiser abdicated and the Socialists gained control of the government. Anarchy. Free Corps crushed insurgency.
The Nazi Party
(NAtionalsoZIalistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, or National Socialist German Workers' Party; NSDAP). Founded in 1919 in Germany, the Nazi party was characterized by a strict authoritarian structure with the Fuhrer (leader) at its head. After Hitler took control of the party in 1922, it expanded rapidly and came to power in 1933. It called for
* German territorial expansion, and
* promoted extreme nationalism, racism and antisemitism.
Founded on January 5, 1919, the Nazi party had its origins in the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel (Political Workers' Circle), a small right - wing group that met beginning in November 1918 under the leadership of Anton Drexler, a locksmith at the locomotive works in Munich, and Karl Harrer, a racist reporter and member of the volkisch - mystical Thule Society. A rabid antisemitism characterized its meetings. the Jews were denounced as the mortal foe of the German people. In January 1919, under Drexler, this circle became the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party), and its foundation by Drexler marked the beginning of the development of politically organized national socialism. Then, it was comprised of only a handful of members; disorganized and had no program. Members expressed a right-wing doctrine. In September 1919, the group was investigated by Hitler.5
In 1919, Adolf Hitler was recruited to join a military intelligence unit; assigned to keep tabs on the German Worker's Party, radical right-wing military-political-Volkish group, in Munich.
Hitler, an undercover army investigator joined the party on September 12, 1919. The turning point of Hitler's mesmerizing oratorical career occurred at one such meeting held on October 16, 1919, in Munich. Hitler's emotional delivery of an impromptu speech captivated his audience.
*Hitler was a powerful and spellbinding speaker who attracted a wide following of Germans desperate for change. Through word of mouth, donations poured into the party's coffers, and subsequent mass meetings attracted hundreds of Germans eager to hear the young, forceful and hypnotic leader - a demagogue.
*Demagogue - A person who gains power through impassioned public appeals to the emotions and prejudices of a group by speaking or writing.
*Name of the party was changed, in early 1920 to the National Socialist German Workers Party, (NAtionalsoZIalisticsche Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP - the Nazi party.
1920 - Nazi Party Platform Drafted. Nazi Antisemitism
The social and economic conditions in post-World War I Germany fostered antisemitism, and some of the politicians exploited these conditions.
*With the assistance of the party staff Hitler drafted a party program consisting of 25 points -became Nazi ideology. This platform was presented at a public meeting on February 24, 1920, with over 2,000 eager participants. After hecklers were forcibly removed by H.s supporters armed with rubber truncheons and whips, H. electrified the audience with his masterful demagoguery.
He opposed Marxism.
Jews were the principal target of his diatribe.
Among the 25 points were revoking the Versailles Treaty, confiscating war profits, expropriating land without compensation for use by the state,
revoking civil rights for Jews, and
expelling those Jews who had emigrated into Germany after the war began.
2/25/1920, the following day, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (forgery that was supposedly the minutes of a worldwide meeting of Jewish elders conspiring to seize world power. Hitler had it reprinted in the 1920s,& distributed copies to the public during his political campaigns) were published in the local antisemitic newspaper. The false, alarming accusations reinforced Hitler's antisemitism. Soon after, treatment of the Jews was a major theme of Hitler's orations; increasing scapegoating of the Jews for inflation, political instability, unemployment, and the humiliation in the war, found a willing audience, who believed Hitler could restore Germanys strength & pride. Jews were tied to internationalism by Hitler (gg).
All agree that from 12th century, negative stereotypes of Jews became deeply embedded in European culture at an instinctual & mythic level. Redotted with modern arguments, these stereotypes regained their power to turn excitable masses against Jews in times of crisis.
Jews were also associated with the new Weimar government and the collapse of the German economy during the great depression. As the Nazis struggled for power, they were able to tap into a deep well of historic stereotypes and prejudice against the Jews.
The Nazi party had been antisemitic from its interception, at first repeating all the familiar accusations against Jewish capitalism, Jewish bolshevism, and characterizing Germanys defeat in the war as the product of Jewish treachery, cowardice & profiteering. (Antisemitism that blossomed in Europe during hard times following WWI, drew upon previous strands. In Germany, Jews accused of betraying the Fatherland during war & later guilty with unwanted liberal democracy; everywhere blamed for spreading communism & economic misery.)
Throughout the 1920s & 1930s, it developed more fully a bizarre conception of the Jews as a parasitic, biological germ which threatened the purity of the Germanic race. According to this theory, the Jews constituted a supreme danger against which the German people must defend themselves. ... Adolf Hitler ... and the Nazi Party clearly attached central significance to the Jewish problem in the formation of their ideology ...6
The moderated antisemitism of a large part of the German population was absolutely crucial. It prevented any effective opposition to the murder of an unpopular minority.7
Yehuda Bauer, pps. 13-15: ... Against the background of the crisis of modern Western society, against the background of political and economic dislocations, as well as of the specific impact of these crises on German society, Nazi antisemitism was the central motivation that drove the regime into the murder of the Jews (the Holocaust is the logical consequence of ideological antisemitism.8
There is a common tendency to view the Holocaust as well-ordered plot, in which antisemitism led to Nazism, Nazism practiced genocide, and both were destroyed ...
Antisemitism - 2 basic perceptions/interpretations (see lecture 2a, p. 2):
1. Traditional view of anti-Judaism: view anti-Jewish sentiments as a cluster of religious, social, economic, and political prejudices ... .
2. the other view/complex interpretation: a political/ideological/social phenomenon firmly rooted in the 19th century European society ... largely discredited following 1945; stresses differences between traditional anti-Jewish feelings and actions among Christian population of Europe, seen primarily related to religious differences and social exclusion (as well as economic activity), and modern, political, demagogic, scientific antisemitism, rooted in a combination of new racial theories, modernization and its effects on society, and nationalism, sometimes invoked along with imperialism and colonialism. ... they are supporters of contextualized antisemtism who view it as part and parcel of modernity, the nation state, industrialization, and mass society.
... these 2 interpretations of antisemitism ... have generally agreed on the role played by their various versions of antisemtism both in the rise of Nazism (or totalitarianism) and in the genocide of the Jews ...
Interpretations. There are 2 models of interpretation of the relationship between antisemitism, National Socialism, and the Holocaust. The first, labeled intentionalist, assumes a direct and causal link between these 3 elements. ... antisemitism and especially its modern political, pseudoscientific version, was the core and essence of the Nazi movement, and hence the Nazi state was inevitably bound to end up carrying out the threats and intentions of its propagandists, that is, the physical annihilation of the Jews.9
In 1921, Hitler became the leader of the party. Hitlers blossoming hatred of the Jews became part of the organization's political platform. Hitler built up the party, converting it from a de facto discussion group to an actual political party. Advertising for the party's meetings appeared in antisemitic newspapers.
*Hitler incorporated military attitudes & techniques into politics,
Nazi political symbolism & rituals & modern propaganda techniques;
he adopted as the party symbol, a red flag with an ancient symbol in the form of a twisted cross: the swastika was adopted as the party symbol (Swastika: ancient good luck symbol; word is derived from the Sanskrit svastika which means conductive to well being; symbol appeared in India, Ottoman Empire; used by American Indians. In 1910, German nationalist Guido von List suggested that the swastika be used as symbol of antisemitic organizations);
uniforms, salutes adopted from Fascists,
processions copied from military, staged mass rallies lifted from sports world.
They all offered Germans of many backgrounds a sens of unity, passion , & purpose. No other party had this popular appeal.
All these imbued party members with a sense of solidarity & camaraderie. At mass meetings, Hitler was a spellbinder who gave stunning performances. his pounding fists, throbbing body, wild gesticulations, hypnotic eyes, rage-swollen face, & repeated denunciations of the Versailles treaty, Marxism, the republic, & Jews inflamed & mesmerized the audience.10 A local newspaper which appealed to antisemites was on the verge of bankruptcy; Hitler raised funds to purchase it for the party.
Hitlers ideology. Nazism - Nazi Racial Ideology. Nazi Antisemitism 11
*Nazism came to Germany in the 1920s & 1930s, because
- the Weimar Republic was weak,
- communist revolution filled the air, and
- severe economic problems made most people look for radical political change.
*Nazism refers to the totalitarian Fascist ideology and policies espoused and practiced by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Worker's Party from 1920-1945 (fascism: right-wing totalitarianism, subordinate of individual to interests of the state. Schopenshauer, Nietzsche, Mussolini).
Nazism: German ideological and political movement led by Adolf HITLER. In combined form, the two concepts of "national" and "social" had become fashionable among Christian Socialist and Volkisch - antisemitic movements before 1914 in Germany and Austria. This was taken up by the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party) founded in Munich in 1919. A year later it added Nationalsozialistische to its name and thus became the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), the party that, under Hitler's leadership, was to pave the way for a "German dictatorship" and play a role of fateful consequence in world history (see NAZI PARTY).
Manifestations of Volkisch antisemitism and pan - Germanism - two basic elements of the ideology that the NSDAP proclaimed at its inception - had appeared in Germany long before World War I. The following ideas played a major role in Nazi ideology:
- the myth of blood and soil,
- the "master race" idea, and
- the utopian vision of Germany conquering LEBENSRAUM ("living space") in the east and "Germanizing" the conquered area.
According to psychologist Ervin Staub, Hitler's ideology consisted of three main main components:
1. Racial purity and the racial superiority of Germans, with strong antisemitism
Racial Nationalism: Nazism included racial theory denigrating non-Aryan; the Aryan Superiority Myth, stressed: the superiority of the Aryan, its destiny as the Master Race to rule the world over other races;
- Hitler preached nationalistic superiority, a racially "pure" Germany; German racial superiority basic tenet of National Socialism. & Germany/Aryan supremacy the goal of unrelenting struggle. Slavic untermenschen.
*Nazis came to believe that Aryan destiny as master race, was meant by nature to rule over the rest of the earth, and entitled to take others land=Lebensraum
- Hitler condemned the Jews, exploiting antisemitic feelings that had prevailed in Europe for centuries. (http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/nazirise.htm)
Nazism included a violent hatred of Jews, which it blamed for all of the problems of Germany=scapegoat theory of politics, individualism versus the national community. (theories of Chamberlain & Alfred Rosenberg).
- Hitler encouraged national pride, militarism, a commitment to the Volk;
2. Nationalism, with the goal of extending German power & influence
Nazism also provided for extreme nationalism which called for the unification of all German-speaking peoples into a single empire. The economy envisioned for the state was a form of corporative state socialism, although members of the party who were leftists (and would generally support such an economic system over private enterprise) were purged from the party in 1934.
3. The leadership principle, which required unquestioning obedience to Hitler
Nazism included the centralization of decision-making by, and loyalty to, a single leader -submission of all decisions to the supreme leader (Fuhrer) Adolf Hitler
*having a totalitarian state.
*Nazism was against democracy, against Jews, and against Christianity.
Nazism rejected both the Judeo-Christian & the Enlightenment traditions and sought to found a new world based on racial nationalism. For Hitler, race was the key to understanding world history. ... Hitlers ideas were based on a volkisch & biological racism. His ideas were not new but common in the 19th century. 12
Nazism also placed an emphasis on sports & paramilitary activities for youth, massive use of propaganda (controlled by Joseph Goebbels) to glorify the state, and
Between 1920 & 1923, the Nazi (NASDP) party grew, drawing thousands of new members, but was confined to Bavaria. It attracted extreme right-wing groups of ex-soldiers, anti-communists & tsarists emigres.
1920s Nazis attracted important section of intellectual classes -teachers, students, because universities became hotbed of extremist right-wing ideas decades before. Students & teachers associations among 1st to join Party; also lower-ranking bureaucrats, lawyers, doctors, engineer, Protestant pastors, elements in army & aristocracy. Bauer: Rethinking the Holocaust, p. 33
By 1921 the NSDAP had 4,500 members & support of extreme right-wing people.
1921 - Occupation of the Ruhr by France - results is general strike until Fall of 1923
In January 1923, French and Belgian troops marched into Germany to settle a reparations dispute. Germans resented this occupation, which also had an adverse effect on the economy.
Economic upheaval generally breeds political upheaval, & Germany in the 1920s was no exception. Hitler's party benefited by the economic collapse of the 1923 massive inflation; exploited it by holding mass protest rallies despite a ban on rallies by local police. Mass rallies, demonstrations - was to become Nazis major instrument for rallying the country under its banner. The Nazi party began drawing thousands of new members, many of whom were victims of hyper-inflation & found comfort in blaming the Jews for this trouble. The price of an egg, for example, had inflated to 30 million times its original price in just 10 years. Communists staged uprisings in October.
*Nov. 9, 1923 - The failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch
The Bavarian government defied the Weimar Republic, accusing it of being too far left. Hitler endorsed fall of the Weimar Republic, and declared at a public rally on October 30, 1923 that he was prepared to march on Berlin to rid the government of the Communists & the Jews. On November 8, 1923, Hitler had attempted to seize power in Munich: he held a rally at a Munich beer hall & proclaimed a national revolution.
The following day, on Nov. 9, 1923, he led 2,000 armed brown-shirts in an attempt to take over the conservative Bavarian government (National Socialists tried to seize power in Munich. General Erich Ludendorff participated in the failed coup attempt with H.; denounced Jews & their deadly superstition of Jehovah.) This putsch was resisted and put down by the police, after more than a dozen were killed in the fighting. Hitler suffered a broken and dislocated arm in the melee; was arrested & was imprisoned at Landsberg. Found guilty of treason. He received the minimum five-year sentence (GG). Hitlers prestige increased; on trial denounced the republic, Versailles treaty, & stated his racial nationalism.
Hitlers World-View - Mein Kampf - a Fuhrer-State, against democrats.
Hitler served only nine months of his five-year term.
*While in prison, he wrote the first volume of Mein Kampf, My Struggle - the holy book of the Nazi movement. It was partly an autobiographical book (although filled with glorified inaccuracies, self-serving half-truths and outright revisionism) which also detailed his views on the future of the German people (GG).
Hitler possessed a consistent ideology: his thought comprised a patchwork of 19th century antisemitic, Volkish, Social Darwinist, antidemocratic, anti-marxist/anti-communist ideas, & pan-German ideas. He constructed a world-view rooted in myth & ritual.
*Hitlers goal was to create a vast empire ruled by the German master race, a 1000-year Reich.
*Third Reich - The Third Empire. It refers to Hitler's name for his German Empire as a successor to the 1st Empire of the Roman Emperors (First Reich) and the Empire of Bismarck in 19th century Germany (Second Reich).
There were several targets of the vicious diatribes in the book, such as democrats, Communists, & internationalists. But an obsessive & virulent antisemitism dominated Hitlers mental outlook. Hitler reserved the brunt of his vituperation for the Jews.
*He portrayed the Jews as Devil ,responsible for all of the problems & evils of the world, particularly democracy, Communism, & internationalism,as well as Germany's defeat in the War. Jews were trying to take over the world; Germany' s true enemy.
*Jews had no culture of their own, he asserted, but are nonhuman who perverted existing cultures such as Germany's with their parasitism. As such, they were not a race, but an anti-race. Germans -of the highest racial purity, were to be the master race -supremacy of German race. (By focusing all evil in one enemy, the conspirator & demonic Jew, Hitler provided with a simple satisfying explanation for all misery).
[The Jews'] ultimate goal is the denaturalization, the promiscuous bastardization of other peoples, the lowering of the racial level of the highest peoples as well as the domination of his racial mishmash through the extirpation of the folkish intelligentsia and its replacement by the members of his own people, he wrote; on the contrary, German people were of the highest racial purity & those destined to be the master race according to Hitler. To maintain that purity, it was necessary to avoid intermarriage with subhuman races such as Jews & Slavs.
Germany could stop the Jews from conquering the world only by eliminating them.
*By doing so, Germany could also find Lebensraum, living space, without which the superior German culture would decay. This living space, Hitler continued, would come from conquering Russia, under control of Jewish Marxists, he believed & the Slavic countries.
*This empire would be launched after democracy was eliminated and a Fuhrer called upon to rebuild the German Reich; need for absolute leader, Fuhrer; idea of a Fuehrer-State.
A second volume of Mein Kampf was published in 1927. It included a history of the Nazi party to that time and its program, as well as a primer on how to obtain and retain political power, how to use propaganda and terrorism, and how to build a political organization.
The Importance of propaganda
*Hitler understood that the successful leader must win the support of the masses.
Propaganda must be aimed at emotions; terror; simple slogans; hot passion from speaker; mass meetings, where individuals lose their sense of individuality.
Propaganda: reason & emotion in politics, the war between intellect & will.
While Mein Kampf was crudely written and filled with embarrassing tangents and ramblings, it struck a responsive chord among its target those Germans who believed it was their destiny to dominate the world. The book sold over five million copies by the start of World War II.
Rise to power (1924-1933)
Once released from prison, dec. 24, Hitler decided to seize power constitutionally rather than by force of arms. Using demagogic oratory, Hitler spoke to mass audiences, calling for the German people to resist the yoke of Jews & Communists, to create a new empire which would rule the world for 1,000 years (GG).
But in Aug. 23, inflation controlled by moderate Center-Right coalition of Gustav Stresemann; between 1924-1929, relative stability; German economy improve.
Nazis won only 3 percent of the vote to the Reichstag (German parliament) in elections in 1924. Since 1925, Germany recovered economically & the republic seemed politically stable. The Dawes Plan & later the Young Plan, by Americans, gradually reduced & forgave reparations payments; revival short-lived; disappointment & discontent persisted.
*In 1925, Ebert, the 1st president of the Republic died, and his successor was the elderly Marshall von Hindenburg (1847-1934), elected by a rightist coalition. In 1925, the Nazi party was reorganized on more centralized lines. ... it developed its proletarian wing outside Bavaria under the leadership of Gregor Strasser ... to attract the working class.13
Nazi leadership included embittered ex-soldiers, rejected intellectuals, & condottieri.
*Major Ernst Rohm, a typical Freikorps condottiere who became leader of the brown-clad Storm Troops (Sturmabteilung, SA); Hitler founded the SA as a paramilitary formation to protect party gatherings - to confront & attack opponents.
Rohm,1887-1934 Himmler, 1900-45 Heydrich 1904-42 Goering 1893-1946
Henrich Himmler, an agronomist. Himmler joined a para-military, nationalist organization and participated in the Munich Beer-Hall putsch of November 1923 as standard-bearer at the side of Ernst Rohm, Secretary to Gregor Strasser and his deputy district leader in Bavaria, Swabia and the Palatinate, he was also acting propaganda leader of the NSDAP from 1925 to 1930.
Hermann Goering: decorated intellectual-fighter pilot; extreme nationalist & anti-communist. Hitler appointed him to command the SA Brownshirts in December 1922. In 1923 he took part in the Munich Beer-Hall putsch. 1927, he rejoined the NSDAP
Reinhard Heydrich the Hangman. In June 1931, he joined the Nazi party as a member of the SA, a group of thugs who fought street battles and barroom brawls against communists.
Rudolf Hess: ex-officer & university student; fanatical devotion to Hitler.
Dr Joseph Goebbels, a gifted journalist.14
Alfred Rosenberg (1893-1946). Lithunian by birth, Rosenberg was the chief ideologist of the Nazi party, & author of Aryan Theory. He brought The Protocols of the Elders of Zion to Germany and to Hitler's attention. Influenced by Chamberlain, he wrote in 1930, The Myth of the Twentieth Century which emphasized a racist ideology; he reiterated the claim of Nordic racial superiority, and the creation of a German national church based on race and purity of blood - with that added a new concept: a virulent anti-Christian element. His antisemitic & anti-Bolshevik propaganda provided a pseudo-scientification for Nazi racial policies.
Julius Streicher edited DER STÜRMER (The Attacker), an antisemitic German weekly, which was published in Nuremberg between 1923 and 1945.
Nazism made use of paramilitary organizations
*To maintain control within the party, and to squelch opposition to the party, the Nazis used fear & force against dissent, to terrorize. Violence and terror fostered compliance. Among these organizations were the:
- S.A. (Sturmabteilung) - stormtroopers known as "brown-shirts;" were the Nazi paramilitary arm under Ernst Rohm; active in the streets battle against other German political parties.
- S.S. - Defense Corps, was a special elite guard unit formed out of the S.A. Abbreviation usually written with two lightning symbols for Schutzstaffel (Defense Protective Units). Originally organized as Hitler's personal bodyguard, the SS was transformed into a giant organization by Heinrich Himmler in 1929. Although various SS units were assigned to the battlefield, the organization is best known for carrying out the destruction of European Jewry.
- Gestapo (Geheime Staatpolizeil) - the Secret State Police, which was formed in 1933.
1926: Hitler Youth. Establishment of Formations -
Formations were created which would appeal to factional interests or infiltrate existing organizations or communities.. Such informal agitation involved the establishment of networks, recruiting key local individuals and spreading the party word by hand or mouth. In 1926, youth had already been targeted with the establishment of Hitler Youth and the National Socialist German Students Association. In 1929 the NS Union of School Pupils was set up, mainly attracting upper middle-class children attending grammar schools. The students association was the most successful of these bodies, and had effectively captured at least 9 universities by 1930. ...
The League of Struggle for German Culture was an organization intended to attract culturally active persons, to rally all defensive forces against the powers of corruption that at present dominate German culture. ... Important, too, was the Nazis infiltration in 1929-30 of the German-National league of Commercial Employees (a body which had previously supported the Nationalists) and organizations representing the interests of the war-disabled, war-pensioners, and civil servants.15
1929: Great Depression -GD
In 1928 the Nazis were the smallest political party; the national Socialists (NSDAP) received only 2.6% of the vote. Hitler continued to build his party.
1929 Beginning Worldwide Economic Crisis
Collapse of Great Coalition in German Government
*The New York stock Exchange collapsed on October 24, 1929; and the Great Depression (GD) began in the United States at the end of 1929. Domino effect; worldwide economic crisis; unemployment. The economic & psychological impact of the GD made the extremist parties more attractive. Germanys economic plight worsened. G. suffered from high & increasing/rising unemployment & from bitter political divisiveness; public restlessness. Germans yearned for strong leadership to end misery, degradation.
New elections Sept 1930. This gave Nazis opportunity. bold swastika-emblazoned banner, torch-lit pageants, mesmerizing music, they hammered home their utopian vision of a community of the German racist Volk.
Using seduction, pressure, & terror -intimidation, National Socialist gained adherents.
Jews & Bolshevism were tangible & accessible, clear foci for resentment
*The Nazi Party Platform & Nazi propaganda:
A. Anti-Versailles Treaty - attacked the November criminals,
1. against paying war reparations
2. desire to regain control of lost territories
B. Anti-Bolshevik - attacked the Communists
C. Anti-liberal, & anti-democratic
1. against political system that begun with the French Revolution -democratic system
2. promote the idea of nationalism & volkisch ideology
D. Antisemitic - scapegoating of the Jews for inflation, political instability, unemployment & the humiliation in the war; Jews blamed for all the evil in the world; tied to internationalism - trying to take over the world.
*E. depicted Hitler as a savior from the chaos, unemployment, sent by destiny - promises
1. economic recovery - putting an end to the hyperinflation of Weimar
2. regaining Germanys proper place - restore Germanys strength & pride
Nazi Antisemitism 1929-33
Bauer: The antisemitic ideology of the Nazis combined elements of both traditional Christian & pseudoscientific 19th century antisemitism. The Protocols, satanic Jew, Jew was the Devil -demonization; International World Jewry, Jewish control/domination, Jewish plot. Hitler contended that Jews introduced into civilization unnatural concepts - humanism, Christianity, equality, liberalism, compassion, conscience - to weaken other people to their rule.
... Racism & blood, 19th c. idea of superiority of one race over another. German peoples superior part of the Aryan race, therefore rightful ruler of world, the only true humans. Latin, Slavs, Aryan too, but to be ruled by Germans, because they lack German blood. Some other Slavs subhuman. Czechs, Poles, Russians to be slaves to superior Teurons.
Jew were nonhuman nomadic ... -the lowest race of people on earth; from Christians view: Jew, the Other -a danger to be avoided; corrupt German blood =>segregation; Jew as parasites, viruses, rats, cockroaches, who would destroy their host nations; human survival & Jewish problem -their quest for world domination; Jew as demonic force of evil -demonization, led by Der Sturmer: Nazis dehumanize Jews. Antisemitism: central pilar of Nazi ideology. German intellectuals supported the Nazis and believed in this nonsense.
Ideological prelude to gradual political development that turned ideology into murderous reality. Process was gradual; one becomes victim, because completely devoid of humanity in perpetrators eye; he/she could be killed. Annihilation followed.
Between 1929-33, Nazi propaganda stressed unemployment, social security, Germanys status. Hitler provided simple explanations for Germanys misfortunes, insisted that only the Nazis could rescue Germany, & promised all things to all groups:
- in working-class attacked international high finance; promise of jobs & bread
- to urban German: law & order
- in middle-class, exploited fear of a Communist revolution, & its threats to private property
- to create a new Germany free of class differences
Hitler promised the disenchanted a better life and a new and glorious Germany.
*The Nazis appealed especially to the unemployed, young people, and members of the lower middle class (small store owners, office employees, craftsmen, and farmers). Nazism appealed to the discontented & disillusioned from all segments of the population - embittered veterans, romantic nationalists, idealistic intellectuals, industrialists & large landowners frightened by communism & social democracy, rootless & resentful people ... , the unemployed, lovers of violence, & ... youth yearning for a cause.
And always there was the immense attraction of Hitler. Many Germans were won over by his fanatical sincerity, his iron will, & his conviction that he was chosen by fate to rescue Germany.16 Old and new admired Nazi confidence that change was possible and they were agents of change.
What was the appeal of the Nazis?
* In time of uncertainty, instability, their message was delivered with certainty.
* There was strength associated with authoritarian rule.
* It appealed to extreme nationalism and identified with superiority.
* Master plan for glorious Germany had a mission for everyone.
* It used propaganda and pageantry in a masterful way.
* The message was directed to the average man.
* There was a strong emphasis on family, morality. It opposed degeneracy.
* It put people to work..
* To the powerless, there was the seduction of power.
* By using scapegoating, they identified those whom they labeled enemies of Germany - Jews, Gypsies, and the handicapped.17
Propaganda techniques, led by Joseph Goebbels, worked & were effective because
- It was targeted to masses, the common people.
- It appealed to emotion rather than logic or intellect.
- It offered a problem & a solution.
- It played on fears, prejudices, & stereotypes.
- It used repetitions to great effect.
The Nazis throughout the 20s created a number of slogans that illustrated their message:
Deutschland erwache. Honor, freedom, bread.
He who thinks German must despise the Jews. The one thing makes the other necessary.
Our last hope: Hitler.
Nazis also skillfully used party rallies & meetings, put on dazzling torchlight parades with 1000s of Stormtroopers goose-stepping under swastika banners; Radio, records & films of Hitlers speeches played in beer halls everywhere - as a way to generate enthusiasm, hope, energy, & new recruits. By 1928, membership rose to over 100,000. 1928 elections, they received 800,000 votes.
The election of 1930 - the Nazi breakthrough
In the September 1930 elections, 80% went to the poll; strong moderate right had vanished, the Nazi vote jumped dramatically from 800,000 to 6,409,000 (18.3 percent of the total vote).
*Hitlers Nazi party captured 18% of the popular vote, in the 1930 elections, getting 107 seats in the Reichstag (had 12 before), making it the 2nd largest party in country, next to the Social Democrats 143 seats; coming in 3rd with 4.5 million votes & 77 seats were the communists. National Socialist Party didnt come to power. Many voted for Hitler because he was a strong opponent of the hated Weimar Republic.
Political & Economic Crisis
In the early 1930s, the mood in Germany was grim - economic; depression; unemployment. Still fresh, Germany's humiliating defeat; lack of confidence in weak Weimar Republic. The Nazis expanded their efforts. Everywhere, they staged mass rallies, put posters, distributed leaflets. Civil violence, worker discontent. political terrorism, street fighting. Nazis battled in the street with opponents of the Left -Communists, brought message of frustration & chaos
Between 1929 & 1933, as the Great Depression deepened, economic conditions in Germany worsened; the Nazi party's rise to power was rapid; political crises. Politically, the country was deadlocked; from sept. 1930, no possible coalition. 1930-33: Hindenburg used article 48, enabled 3 chancellors to rule by a series of emergency decrees in his name - parliamentary democracy was already dying.
End of the Republic, 1932
Prompted by Hjalmar Schacht and Fritz Thyssen, the great industrial magnates began to contribute liberally to the coffers of the NSDAP, reassured by Hitler's performance before the Industrial Club in Dusseldorf on 27 January1932 that they had nothing to fear from the radicals in the Party. The following month Hitler officially acquired German citizenship and decided to run for the Presidency, receiving 13,418,011 votes in the run-off elections of 10 April 1932 as against 19,359,650 votes for the victorious von Hindenburg, but four times the vote for the communist candidate, Ernst Thaelmann.
Nazi slogan: One nation, One people, One leader, made sense to millions - reestablish Germanys position in Europe by creating a new strong 3rd Reich which would overcome the shame of the Versailles Treaty, German pride, uniting all Germans under one leader
1932 Eve of Reichstag election Nazis major political force & their antisemitic rhetoric had become a staple of political discourse.
In the Reichstag elections of July 1932 the Nazis emerged as the largest political party in Germany, obtaining nearly fourteen million votes (37.3 per cent) and 230 seats in the 608-deputy Reichstag, more than any other party. ... the NSDAP fell back in November 1932 to eleven million votes (196 seats) ...18 - lost 34 seats. Radical Nazis wanted to seize power, but Hitler insisted that he would come to power legally and that he would accept nothing less than the chancellorship. The internal political situation, meanwhile, was very unstable and many Germans were revolted by the brutal street fighting of the Stormtroopers.
In the summer of 1932, Franz von Papen destroyed the last bulwark of German democracy the federal state of Prussia by charging that Prussia could not maintain law and order; in process, von Papen became Reich Commissioner for Prussia, gaining control of all of Prussia's resources and a police force of 90,000 which Hitler later absorbed into the Nazi Party.
*Right-wing elites, industrial magnates, landed aristocrats, military establishment, & higher bureaucrats came to see Hitler as the man who had the mass support to establish a right-wing, authoritarian regime that would save Germany & their privileged positions from a Communist takeover.
*Jan. 30, 1933 - Legitimizing Hitler: Hitler appointed Chancellor
Early in January 1933, von Papen and Hitler met in the home of a Cologne banker, Kurt von Schroder, who pledged funds needed by the Nazi party, and a group of industrialists reassured Hindenburg to let Hitler form a cabinet. A political deal was made to make Hitler chancellor in exchange for his political support. Von Papen reassured Hindenburg that he as vice-chancellor would always accompany Hitler in his talks with the president - Hitler was helped to power by a camarilla of conservative politicians led by Franz von Papen, who persuaded the reluctant von Hindenburg to nominate "the Bohemian corporal" as Reich Chancellor on 30 January 1933.19
Under pressure & reluctantly, President Hindenburg agreed, and on January 30, 1933, Hitler became chancellor of coalition government, at the age of 43, the head of the German government, to create a new government. He had indeed come to power legally. And many Germans believed that they had found a savior for their nation. Conservatives felt that Hitler would be contained & controlled.
... the Jewish question -so central to Hitlers own world view- was, both to his new political partners and to most other Germans, a largely peripheral concern. What followed, therefore, is all the more puzzling and alarming, a terrifying indictment of the power of human indifference and passivity.20
End of part I: Ideological Roots of the Holocaust
Why Could the Holocaust Happen?
... the more we study it -the Holocaust, the more we know about it, the less comprehensible it becomes. We still seek an answer to the most important questions: Why did it happen? How could it have happened? How could it happen in an advanced, civilized modern nation?
There is no easy answer ... No one reason alone paved the way for the Holocaust to occur. It was the combined result of many factors:
The Holocaust - Summing up. What caused the Holocaust?
Historians agree that the Holocaust resulted from a confluence of various factors in a complex historical situation. ...
antisemitism fostered throughout the centuries in European culture ...21
- "racism, combined with centuries-old hatred/bigotry, the longest hatred- of the Christians for the Jews, renewed by a nationalistic fervor which emerged in Europe in latter half of the 19th century, fueled by World War I never totally resolved;
development of the Holocaust by German National Socialism (Nazism) can be explained by specific factors operating in Germany:
*1. ... retardation of the development of a national unity ...
*2. Identification of an integral German (volkisch) nationalism ... excluded Jews ...
*3. German romanticism ... rejected liberal & democratic traditions ...
*4. German defeat in WWI and resulting desire to reassert German collective strength (Germany's defeat in World War I and its national humiliation following the Treaty of Versailles, exacerbated by worldwide economic hard times)
*5. Economic crises of early and late twenties ... (Ravaged by World War I, the German state was already in poor economic shape before the Depression of the 1920's struck. Reparations demands and a weakened infrastructure led to inflation and unemployment. The democratic institutions artificially established by the Allies and a feeling of global alienation as a result of a guilt clause and land seizures in the Treaty of Versailles exacerbated social turmoil and left Germany looking for someone to blame.)
*6. Central & crucial element of the long-standing tradition of antisemitism in explaining crises and social problems.22
- Ineffectiveness of the Weimar Republic: The Weimar Republic, a weak democracy, never really effectively governed Germany and therefore was not much of a match for the Nazi party when it gained power.
- Nazism appealed to peoples need for a sense of belonging, loyalty & community.
- the political charisma, militaristic inclusiveness, & manipulative propaganda of Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime (see lecture 8a for more details).
Here you can find out what combination of events lead to the tragic genocide.
Each incomplete statement in Part A tells about the Nazis in Germany during the 1920s. Part B lists reasons that complete the statement. Next to each number, write the letter of the reason that best completes the statements.
____ 1. Hitler chose the swastika as the party emblem because
____ 2. Many unemployed ex-soldiers joined the SA, organized in 1921, because
____ 3. Most of the 25-point Nazi platform, in 1920, was aimed at hurting Jews because
____ 4. The French sent in troops in 1923, to take over the Ruhr because
____ 5. The Beer Hall Putsch failed, Nov. 9,1923 because
____ 6. Hitler called Jews the most inferior race because
____ 7. The Nazis came to power in Germany in Jan. 30, 1933, mainly because
a. it had fascinated people for centuries
b. the Germans could not afford to pay their war debts to France
c. Germany suffered from many severe postwar problems, which Hitler promised to cure
d. Hitler wanted to use Jews as the scapegoats for all the problems in Germany
e. they were angry at the government for not being able to find them jobs
f. Hitler did not yet have enough support to take over the whole country
g. he believed they were biologically inferior, that is, less advanced in body & mind than any other group of human beings
Nazi - Short term for National Socialist German Workers Party, a right-wing, nationalistic, and antisemitic political party formed in 1919 and headed by Adolf Hitler from 1921 to 1945.
*Mein Kampf - "My Struggle" in German. A book written by Hitler while in prison which became the standard work of Nazi political doctrine.
Imperialism - A foreign policy which includes the taking of territory by force or coercion.
*Lebensraum (Living Space) - A German term indicating the Germans' imperialistic designs on Europe. It also refers to the additional territory deemed necessary to the nation for its economic well-being.
*S.A. - The Sturmabteilung (Stormtroopers), also known as the "brown-shirts." It was the Nazi paramilitary arm under the command of Ernst Rohm. It was active in the Nazi battle for the streets against members of other German political parties and was notorious for its violent and terrorist methods.
*Swastika - An ancient symbol in the form of a twisted cross which was adopted by the Nazi party as its logo in the 1920s.
*Nazism - The abbreviation for National Socialist German Worker's Party. The fascist dictatorship under Adolf Hitler in Germany from 1933-1945.
Chancellor - Chief (prime) minister of Germany, head of the government.
*Fuhrer - A leader, especially one exercising the absolute power of a tyrant. Hitler's title as leader of the Nazi party, and Chief of the German state.
*Third Reich - The Third Empire. It refers to Hitler's name for his German Empire as a successor to the 1st Empire of the Roman Emperors (First Reich) and the Empire of Bismarck in 19th century Germany (Second Reich).
Treaty of Versailles, 1919 - photographs:
Rise to power, 1928-33: http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/index.php?ModuleId=10005480
Nazi Propaganda - photographs:
Copyright, Fall 1999, January 2004 Edith Shaked
Source/Credit: The Holocaust - A guide for Teachers. http://www.remember.org/guide/
Prof. Linda Woolf; Prof. Alex Alvarez
1 Yehuda Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust, Yale University Press, 2001
2 Y. Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust: Yale University Press, 2001p. 28-9
3 USHMM - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
4 see Y. Bauer, The holocaust, pp. 79-81
5 see Y. Bauer, The holocaust, p. 79
6 Landau, Ronnie S. The Nazi Holocaust. London-New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd Publishers,1992, p. 95.
7 Yehuda Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust, p. 35
8 Y. Bauer. Genocide: Was it the Nazis Original Plan?
9 Omer Bartov, Antisemitism, the Holocaust, and Reinterpretations of National Socialism, in The Holocaust and History - The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed and the Reexamined; eds: Michael Berenbaum and Abraham J. Peck; published in association with the US Holocaust Memorial Museum; 1998, p. 75, 86
10 Perry, Chase, Jacob, V. Laue. Western Civilization, Ideas, Politics & Society. Houghton 92, p. 753
11 see Y. Bauer, The holocaust, pp. 88-92.
12 Perry, Chase, Jacob, V. Laue. Western Civilization, Ideas, Politics & Society. Houghton 92, p. 754.
13 Landau, Ronnie S. The Nazi Holocaust. London-New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd Publishers,92, p. 95, 104
14 see Y. Bauer, The holocaust, p. 82.
15 Landau, Ronnie S. The Nazi Holocaust. London-New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd Publishers,1992, pp. 97-8
16 Perry, Chase, Jacob, V. Laue. Western Civilization, Ideas, Politics & Society. Houghton 92, p. 756.
17 USHMM, 1995
20 Landau, Ronnie S. The Nazi Holocaust. London-New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd Publishers,1992, p. 112.
21 Yehuda Bauer, A History of the Holocaust, p. 361
22 Yehuda Bauer, A History of the Holocaust, p. 361