Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945
Murderous Racism and Antisemitism - Bureaucracy of Evil

B. World War II, Sept. 1939-May, 1945: “New Order” & Holocaust
1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism - Lebensraum, Racism, Antisemitism & Dehumanization
2. 1941-45: Death by Design & Shoah

The War Against Other Undesirable "Enemies of the State"

Additional Victims of Nazi Persecution

Other victims: Gypsies, Homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Poles. "Race" versus "life-style" and politics as issues for being identified as victims.


While the focus of Nazi genocide was unquestionably targeted toward Jews, the Third Reich's policy of mass murder was not restricted to Jews but devastated the ranks of other non-Aryans. ‘In addition to the approximately 6 million Jews who were the targets of a complete annihilation policy in the Nazi Holocaust, were an estimated 5.5 million ‘enemies of the German State’ who were murdered under equally inhumane circumstances -- asocials, the insane, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, political criminals such as communists & socialists, and Gypsies. Michael R. Marrus, in his book, The Holocaust in History, writes about the targets of Nazi murder:

"The Nazis murdered between five million and six million Jews during the Holocaust ... But a staggering 55 million may have perished in all theaters during the Second World War including some 20 million Soviet citizens...five million Germans, and three million non-Jewish Poles...In all, some 18 million European civilians may have died as a result of famine,
disease, persecution, and more conventional acts of war.

"Awesome as they are, therefore,
numbers do not in themselves prescribe the singularity of the Holocaust. ... the campaigns against other peoples & groups; Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, Poles, Ukrainians, & so on. Assaults on these people ... murderous; their victims number in the millions, and their ashes mingle with those of the Jews of Auschwitz and many other camps across Europe."

‘The Holocaust is more than a Jewish tragedy, it is a human disaster of unprecedented proportions. Mass murder by lawful decrees by the National Socialist regime of Germany, reached extraordinary dimensions when organizational skills & technical expertise combined Concepts of civilization ... were undermined and/or shattered.’1

The Deadly Philosophy: Racial Purity

#When Hitler and the Nazi came to power, they spread their beliefs in racial ‘purity’ & in the superiority of the ‘Germanic race’ - what he called an Aryan ‘master race;’ and those beliefs became the government policy; they were spread in publicly displayed posters, on the radio, in the movies, classrooms, & newspapers. Hitler pronounced that his race must remain pure in order to one day take over the world. For Hitler, the ideal ‘Aryan’ was blond, blue-eyed, healthy, heterosexual & tall.

At the core of Nazi ideology was a deadly vision of a racially pure society: a vicious form of social, genetic, & population planning that eliminated every individual not fitting its narrow definition of perfection.

At the core of the Holocaust Era (1933-45) were the ideology of hatred & a national policy based on a hatred so deadly that it judged an entire people & ‘the others’/the undesirables to be unworthy of life. These were translated into genocide & ‘Final Solution.’ Jews were not the only target of Nazi persecution despite their status as the main ‘problem.’ Nazi hatred extended to include groups deemed racially or genetically ‘inferior,’ which was advocated by scientists who promoted ‘selective breeding,’ or eugenics for the ‘improvement’ of the human race.


‘Approximately 11.5 million people were killed because of Nazi genocidal policy. It was the explicit aim of Hitler's regime to create a ... world both dominated & populated by the ‘Aryan’ race.” Hitler had a vision of a Master Race of Aryans ... He used very powerful propaganda techniques to convince not only the German people, but countless others, that if they eliminated the people who stood in their way and the degenerates and racially inferior, they - the great Germans would prosper. (a master plan for a ‘New Order’ - a single political & economic system ruled from Berlin & dominated by the Aryan race, based on exploitation, terror & extermination). As the Second World War progressed towards its third year, the Nazis’ seeming invincibility strengthened their arrogant belief that nothing could stand in the way of their establishing the ‘Thousand Year Reich’ Hitler had promised them. The brutalizing theater of war, could provide them with the context in which their ... ugly theories of racial domination could be put into practice. ...

“The Nazi machinery was dedicated to eradicating millions of people it deemed undesirable. Some people were undesirable by Nazi standards because of who they were, their genetic or cultural origins or health conditions. These included Jews, Gypsies, Poles & other Slavs, & people with physical or mental disabilities. Others were Nazi victims because of what they did. These victims of the Nazi regime included Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, the dissenting clergy, Communists, Socialists, asocials, & other political enemies.

Those believed by Hitler and the Nazis to be enemies of the state were banished to camps. Inside the concentration camps, prisoners were forced to wear various colored triangles, each color denoting a different group. The letters on the triangular badges below designate the prisoners' countries of origin.’

Physically & mentally challenged people. Euthanasia

These people never were assigned a badge because they were rarely sent to concentration camps. People with physical & mental disabilities threatened the Nazi plan for human perfection. Under Nazi doctrine, one major obsession of the party was to assure that the blood of the German "master race" remained "pure" of any contamination by people with undesirable features.

‘The application of genocidal policies did not start with the Jews. From the moment the Nazis took power in 1933, they introduced the racial hygiene programs to weed out those deemed ‘unfit’ for German society.”2 Laws were passed between 1933-1935 to reduce the number of genetically ‘inferior’ individuals in the gene pool through involuntary sterilization programs. In 1934, forced sterilization programs sterilized 300,000-400,000 people, mainly those in mental hospitals & other institutions. Propaganda was distributed which helped build public support for those government policies. The mentally ill & physically disabled were stigmatized, while the costs of care were emphasized in propaganda campaign. Nazis believed that the ‘useless mouths,’ the chronically ill & the physically & mentally defective, had no right to live;’ the Nazi phrase, ‘Life unworthy of life’ described such people

In 1939, a Nazi ‘euthanasia program’ began, with German non-Jews as the first victims. The
program was later extended to Jews. This term euthanasia, is used as a euphemism for the Nazi plan to exterminate those with physical or mental defects (the deliberate killings of institutionalized physically, mentally, & emotionally handicapped people. Unlike the sterilization program, the euthanasia program was conducted in secrecy. "Operation T4" was the code term used to designate this killing project. (see lecture notes # 8-a)

‘Following the invasion of the Soviet Union, 6.22.1941, German terror extended to institutionalized handicapped and psychiatric patients in the Soviet Union; it also resulted in the mass murder of more than 3 million Soviet prisoners of war.’3

As word leaked out about the euthanasia program, some church leaders, parents of victims, physicians, & judges protested the killings. Hitler ordered end of Operation T4 in Aug. 1941. However the euthanasia killings continued in a decentralized manner. Doctors were encouraged to kill some physically or mentally disabled patients by starvation, poisoning, or injection.


Deaf People in the Holocaust

Sterilization for Black Children - "Rhineland Bastards" See lecture 8c.

During World War I, black African soldiers were brought in by the French during the Allied occupation. Most of the Germans, who were very race conscious, despised the dark-skinned "invasion". Some of these black soldiers married white German women that bore children later referred to as "Rhineland Bastards" or the "Black Disgrace".

*About 400-500 children were medically sterilized or subjected to sterilizing radiation - many times without their parents' knowledge. Many Blacks & Gypsies, also sterilized, were prevented from intermarrying with Germans.

Other victims of Nazi persecution included political opponents of Hitler and trade unionists as well as other "enemies of the state."
*After 1939, in addition to the Jews, Nazis persecuted & slaughtered another almost 6 million non-Jewish people. Many of these were Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, handicapped, homosexuals & Eastern Slavs, whom they considered inferior races. Collaborators. Nazis tried to hide death camps. Nazi Germany found collaborators in Croatia & Rumania.

Map Click on ‘Non-Jewish Victims’ after clicking on Map at:

Roma & Sinti (Gypsies) - For Their Race They Were Executed

A group of Romani prisoners, awaiting instructions from their German captors, sit in an open
area near the fence in the Belzec concentration camp. Photo credit: Archives of Mechanical Documentation, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives 4

click on ‘The fate of the Gypsies’ after clicking on Map at:
Gypsies, a dark-skinned, Caucasian ethnic group targeted by the Nazis; popular term for Roma & Sinti, nomadic people believed to have come originally from northwest India consisted of several tribes. Romani (commonly but incorrect
The Gypsies in German-occupied Europe had been persecuted for centuries. The Nazi regime continued the persecution, viewing Gypsies both as asocial & as racially inferior to Germans.
They were forced to wear the black triangle.

“As was the case for the Jews, the outbreak of war in September 1939 radicalized the Nazi regime's policies towards the Romani. The Gypsies in Germany & the occupied territories of the German War machine were subjected to many of the same persecutions as the Jews: restrictive, discriminatory laws, isolation and internment. Their "resettlement to the East" and their mass murder closely parallel the systematic deportations and killings of the Jews. First, western European Roma were resettled in ghettos. Then they were sent to concentration and extermination camps. {like the Jews, the Gypsies were chosen for total annihilation just because of their race (even though Jews are defined by religion, Hitler saw the Jewish people as a race that he believed needed to be completely annihilated). The Germans believed both the Jews & the Gypsies were racially inferior & degenerate & therefore worthless}. Many Roma in the east--Russia, Poland, and the Balkans--were shot by the Einsatzgruppen.”5
It is difficult to determine exactly how many Romani were murdered. The estimates range from 220,000 to 500,000.”6

Over 500,000 Gypsies were systematically murdered, out of approximately 1.6 million who were living in Europe, by the Nazis between 1939 & 1945, in Nazi concentration camps, killing centers, & by Einzatsgruppen & other shootings.*


“Gypsy children assembled for extermination in Belzec. Date: 1940 Era: During WWII”7

The ‘Black’ Experience in the Holocaust Review of: "Hitler's Forgotten Victims" by David Okuefuna and Moise Shewa:

“1. ... the horrific experiences of Black people in Nazi Germany are virtually ignored. These experiences are brought to light in a documentary film entitled Hitler's Forgotten Victims (Afro-Wisdom Productions). The film uses interviews with survivors and their families as well as archival material to document the Black German Holocaust experience; it also explores the history of German racism, suggests links between German colonialism and Nazi policy, and examines the treatment of Black prisoners-of-war.

2. Hitler's Forgotten Victims reveals that sterilization programs for Blacks had been instigated by Germany's most senior Nazi geneticist, Doctor Eugen Fischer ...

3. This film shows that Nazi obsession with racial purity and eugenics was provoked and intensified in 1918, following Germany's defeat in the First World War. ...

4. Hitler's Forgotten Victims shows that ... 400 mixed-race children were forcibly sterilized in the Rhineland area alone by the end of 1937, while 400 others just disappeared into Hitler's concentration camps.

6. While many Blacks may have considered themselves lucky to escape Nazi persecution, even via forced sterilization, Hitler's Forgotten Victims recalls that early on, Hitler had announced plans for more complete eradication of unwanted populations. In a speech in Bresau in 1932, for instance, he had ordered all Africans, Jews, and other non-Aryans to leave Germany or go into concentration camps. According to this documentary, however, the majority of Blacks in Germany could not heed Hitler's warning as they were German citizens with German passports and had no where else to go. A fair number escaped to France, but many attempted to return to the former German colonies that had been taken over by the League of Nations in 1920. The British colonial authorities then administering the newly named South-West Africa, however, would not allow Black Germans refugee status on the grounds that they had fought for Germany in the First World War.

7. My only criticism of Hitler's Forgotten Victims is that it does not give enough insight into the lives of Black Germans who resisted Nazi Germany, such as Black activist Lari Gilges, who founded the Northwest Rann--an organisation of entertainers that fought the Nazis in his home town of Dusseldorf--and who was murdered by the SS in 1933, the year Hitler came to power. The film does, however, attend to the way various parts of the entertainment industry, such as film studios and touring ethnic shows like the Hillerkus Afrikaschau circuses, provided at least temporary refuges from Nazi persecution.

8. Interestingly, by 1940 these operations were taken over by the SS, who considered them racially unacceptable and converted them to serve their own racist propaganda purposes. For instance, Propaganda minister Josef Goebbels realized that in order to spread the Nazi Gospel of white Aryan supremacy, he needed to exploit the most popular entertainment medium of the time--German feature films. Propaganda pictures such as Kongo Express, Quax in Africa, and Auntie Wanda from Uganda were made to present Germany as an enlightened, benevolent colonial power. Thus, even under Nazi control, the film industry provided a certain amount of protection for Black Germans. As Black actor Werner Egoimue explains, "We had an agent then, who had all the addresses of Black people in Berlin. The Reich's Chamber of Commerce was in touch with him, and when they were casting a film, it was fun--inside the studio. Outside the door you could be arrested. But inside you were as safe as in a bank."

9. Hitler's Forgotten Victims also presents the experience of Black POWs. The Nazis segregated Black prisoners from the rest of the camp population for extra special treatment of the fatal kind. Often, in what was a breach of the Geneva Convention, Black prisoners were denied food and assigned highly dangerous jobs. Footage never aired before shows Black soldiers and civilians scavenging for scraps of food in garbage heaps at the Hemer POW camp near Dortmund in Northwest Germany. No one knows how many Black people died in the camps at the hands of the SS guards, producer Moise Shewa says, because Jews were demarcated as Jews, but Black people were demarcated by nationality.

10. Although there does not seem to be a huge amount of documented evidence concerning the Black experience in German concentration camps, the film does provide compelling glimpses of how the Nazis treated their Black victims. It presents visual testimony, such as the art of Black American painter Joseph Nassy, who was working as a sound engineer in Brussels before his arrest by the Gestapo, which portrays the harsh realities of concentration camp life. It also presents oral testimony, such as that from Johnny William. Born to an African mother and a white French father, William was arrested by the Gestapo and deported to the Neugengamme concentration camp near Hamburg. "There were 5 or 6 of us," he explains. "As soon as we arrived at Neugengamme, we were immediately separated from the white deportees by the SS. They considered us to be sub-human beings like animals, chimpanzees."

11. Hitler's Forgotten Victims also recalls the impact made by Black inmates on other inmates. A case in point is Johnny Voste, the Belgian Resistance fighter who was arrested in 1942 for sabotage in the tow of Malignes, near Antwerp, and was deported to Dachau. The film's interview with Wily Sel reveals that "Johnny got the possibility to organise boxes of vitamins and gave them to all his friends and buddies he had there. The survivors will say he saved our lives at that moment because it is true. The main technique to survive in the concentration camps was to like to live, not to die, to say 'No, you can't have my life: I will fight for it.'"

12. Without doubt, Hitler's Forgotten Victims is a documentary that should not be forgotten. It makes clear that the 'special treatment' of Blacks should be acknowledged as an important part of the Holocaust. Sadly, the Nazi victimization of Blacks has remained unacknowledged by every German government since 1939. One simple reason for this convenient amnesia is that--...--there is relatively little shocking celluloid evidence showing specifically how Blacks were with. The film corrects this historical gap by relying mainly on survivor and family narratives.

13. The 'lack' of evidence heretofore may explain why German authorities have consistently refused to meet compensation claims launched by Black survivors, their relatives, and victim's families. Further, most German Black people were stripped of their nationality to the Nazis, making it extremely difficult for them to claim reparations as citizens of the German state. As German MP Bernd Reuter stated, "After the war it was difficult to come up with proof that one was stateless but had been German." One hopes this film will help force the German Government to acknowledge the Black experience at the hands of the Nazis and to compensate Black Germans. One also hopes that the distribution and viewing of this film will make people everywhere realize the hydra-headed nature of the Nazi racist imaginary and its atrocious practices.
> >
UK Title: Hitler's Forgotten Victims. Screened on England's Channel Four, October 2, 1997.
USA Title: Black Survivors of the Holocaust. To be screened on the Family Channel
As a courtesy, when you cross-post or forward, we'd appreciate it if you mention that you received the info via the BRC-NEWS list. Thank you.]

Jehovah’s Witnesses

They wore a purple triangle. The Nazis also began to suppress several Christian minorities whom they felt were subversive to their goals. Even before the war, Jehovah's Witnesses had been considered heretics by other Christian denominations and individual German states sought to limit their activities. In the early 1930's, Nazi storm troopers broke up their meetings and beat up individual Witnesses. After the Nazis came to power, the persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses intensified.(see, Resistance: Jehovah Witnesses)

Political Prisoners, Dissenting Clergy, and Other Victims

Political prisoners (Labor Party members, dissidents) wore a red triangle. Communists & Socialists usually wore a black triangle. ‘The remnants of the Communist and Socialist parties and members of the trade unions resisted the Nazi regime. Especially in the early years of the Third Reich, political prisoners were a significant portion of the concentration camp inmates. At the end of July 1933, about 27,000 political prisoners were being held in concentration camps in "protective custody." During its twelve year existence, Dachau was always a camp for political prisoners.

In 1933, the Catholic Church signed a concordat or agreement with the new Nazi government, recognizing the legitimacy of the Third Reich. The Protestant Church united into a single Reich Church under one bishop. In September 1933, Martin Niemöller, a pastor of a fashionable church in Berlin, set up a Pastors' Emergency League which led to the formation of the anti-Nazi Confessional Church. This church wrote a memorandum to Hitler attacking the government's anti-Christian campaign, policies of antisemitism, and terrorizing tactics. Hitler responded with a crackdown on members of the Confessional Church. Hundreds of dissenting clergy were arrested, many were imprisoned, and some were executed.

Asocials were another category of people that Nazis deemed undesirable, and necessary for eradication. Nazis targeted numerous vagrants, prostitutes, alcoholics, and others who were considered unfit for society.

Priests and Pastors Died for Their Beliefs

Hitler expected his followers to worship the Nazi ideology. Since Catholic priests and Christian pastors were often influential leaders in their community, they were sought out by the Nazis very early. Thousands of Catholic priests and Christian pastors were forced into concentration camps. A special barracks was set up at Dachau, the camp near Munich, Germany, for clergymen. A few survived; some were executed, but most were allowed to die slowly of starvation or disease.

The Germans rounded up thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses and homosexuals and sent them to the death camps for extermination.

Homosexuals: Victims of the Nazi Era, 1933-194545

Homosexuals were forced to wear pink triangles on their clothing paralleling the yellow Star of David for Jews. It was from this that the homosexual population of most countries today, continue to use the pink triangle as a symbol of their sexual orientations.

Because Hitler's plan for a great Master Race had no room for any homosexuals, many males were persecuted, tortured and executed.

Homosexuals see lecture 8c.

‘As part of its attempt to "purify" German society and propagate an "Aryan master race," the Nazi regime condemned homosexuals as "socially aberrant." Persecution was especially focused on homosexual men who were considered a particular threat to the Nazi goal of an increased "Aryan" birthrate, justifying the classification of homosexuality as a racial crime.
Adolph Hitler banned all gay and lesbian organizations soon after coming to power on January 30, 1933. In the months and years that followed, gay and lesbian bars were closed; their organizations, publishing houses, and magazines were prohibited; and the Research Institute for Sexual Science was raided and looted. A special Gestapo Secret State Police division on homosexuals was established in 1934, and the number of prosecutions of gay men dramatically increased under revised Paragraph 175 of the Criminal Code.

An estimated 100,000 men were arrested as homosexuals between 1934 and 1945. Some 50,000 were actually sentenced. An estimated 5,000 to 15,000 of these individuals were incarcerated in concentration camps, where many perished due to harsh treatment by guards and other prisoners. Lesbians were persecuted to a far lesser degree, although they were still forced to go underground, sometimes even marrying to protect themselves.’8

‘Some homosexuals spent time in regular prisons, and an estimated 5,000-15,000 were sent to concentration camps. Even within the confines of the camps, homosexuals were mistreated and tormented by other inmates. The homosexual inmates were forced to wear pink triangles on their clothes so they could be easily recognized and further humiliated inside the camps. The Nazi regime claimed its concern about homosexuality related to keeping the Aryan birthrate high. German and Austrian gays were subject to arrest and imprisonment, but in German-occupied countries, Nazis did not deport homosexuals and send them to camps.

Pink Triangles for Homosexuals
"Gay Prisoners in Concentration Camps as Compared with Jehovah's Witnesses and Political Prisoners, Ruediger Lautmann:
Homosexuals & the Holocaust, Ben S. Austin:

Exporting Nazi policy, 1941-44

Throughout German-occupied Europe, the Germans arrested those who resisted their domination and those they judged to be racially inferior or politically unacceptable. People arrested for resisting German rule were mostly sent to forced-labor or concentration camps. ... Prisoners in all the concentration camps were literally worked to death. According to SS reports, there were more than 700,000 prisoners registered in the concentration camps in January 1945. Several hundred thousand Roma (Gypsies) and Soviet prisoners of war were also systematically murdered.

Polish Christians Poles and Other Slavs

Polish Christians

*“Christian Poles, Catholic priests, and other Slavs, notably million Ukrainians and Byelorussians, were also primary targets of Nazi Germany hatred during World War II. ‘The Nazis considered the Poles and other Slavic peoples to be Untermenschen, or sub-human (destined to serve as slaves to the Aryan "master race) and nothing more than obstacles to gaining territory necessary for the superior German race. This philosophy is apparent in Hitler's statement, "The destruction of Poland is our primary task. The aim is not the arrival at a certain line but the annihilation of living forces..."
The combination of a Nazi genocidal policy and the Nazis' thirst for more living space resulted in disaster for Polish, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian populations.

Hitler quickly took control of Poland by specifically wiping out the Polish leading class -- the Intelligentsia - The Polish intelligentsia and political leadership was sought out specifically for execution. Of the six million Poles murdered by the Nazis, half were Polish Christians. Among the dead were more than 2,600 Catholic priests.

Millions of Slavs were deported to Germany for forced labor. Intelligentsia, consisting of teachers, physicians, clergy, business owners, attorneys, engineers, landowners, and writers, were imprisoned in concentration camps or publicly executed.
Tens of thousands of Ukrainians were executed by mobile killing squads, or Einsatzgruppen.

Those who were sent to camps had to wear badges, of course. There was not one badge designation for Poles and other Slavs. Rather, a Polish or Slavic person was categorized as a criminal, asocial, political prisoner, and so on.

The Germans took over the ranches, farms and Polish factories. Most healthy citizens were forced into slave labor. Young Polish men were drafted into the German army. Blond haired children were "Germanized" and trained from an early age to be Nazi supporters. During the next few years, millions of other Polish citizens were rounded up and either placed in slave labor for German farmers and factories or taken to concentration camps where many were either starved and worked to death or used for scientific experiments - Polish civilians were slaughtered indiscriminately. Among the dead were more than 2,600 Catholic priests.
Millions upon millions of non-Jews were slaughtered in the Slavic countries.”9


Almost four million Ukrainians fell victim to Nazi slaughter, through combat, starvation, and terror, particularly as a result of the efficient Einsatzgruppen. Of these, 900,000 were Jews, according to Bohdan Wytwychky's The Other Holocaust: Many Circles of Hell.

*Death or Divorce - A Choice for Many

Many husbands and wives of Jews in Germany were forced to choose between divorce or concentration camps. Hitler would not allow "inter-racial" marriages. Those that chose to remain married were punished by imprisonment in camps where many died.

Soviet Prisoners of War

Soviet prisoners of war were the second largest group of victims, after the Jews, of the Nazi extermination policy. Over 3 million-over 5744616f Russian POWs, died at Nazi hands, compared to 3.66113060f Anglo-Americans POWs. Russian prisoners died of starvation, maltreatment and unbearable conditions. Thousands were shot

The green triangle

‘The green triangle was reserved for the common criminal: thieves, rapists, murderers, child abusers, etc. In most of the camps, it was those who wore the green triangle who were put in charge of the other prisoners and who spared no effort to make living & working conditions as miserable as was possible, under already horrifying conditions, for all the rest of the prisoners. Jews, Gypsies, & Homosexuals most often bore the brunt of their sadism & cruelty.’10

Click on ‘Non-Jewish Victims’ after clicking on Map at:
Maps of the Holocaust
Taken from the Holocaust Museum Education Guide and reprinted with
permission from Martin Gilbert, these seven maps show persecution of Jews
in Germany, non-Jewish victims, the fate of the Gypsies, concentration
camps, righteous among the nations, revolts, and resistance fighters.

Maps of World War II and the Holocaust

Copyright Fall 1999, November 2003, January 2004 Edith Shaked
Credit/source: Gary M. Grobman, The Holocaust - A guide for Teachers, 1990

1 Rita Steinhardt Botwinick, A History of the Holocaust, Prentice Hall, 1996, p. 1

2 Jack Fischel, The Holocaust, p. XXX

3, p. 3





8 the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum


10 Beth Dutton, Holocaust & Resistance Studies, Vermont, 1997, p. 21