Arizona Rape Prevention and Education Project -- University of Arizona Department of Public Health
Clicking this anywhere in the site will take you back to the home page! How to find help, what to do if a friend needs help, and info on state, national, and international information and referral services. Topics of current interest and discussion. Updated regularly. National and state incidence & prevalence research, data forms, and other reports. Summary information on a variety of rape-related topics organized by keyword and author. Article abstracts included. References for measures used to study rape and evaluate rape prevention/education programs Materials provided by Arizona Department of Health Services consultants and Program Manager for state contractors. Links to research institutes, government sites, funding information, and privately maintained sites. Contact information for Arizona Department of Health Services consultants and Program Manager.

Research Abstracts A to C

Note: Abstracts are arranged alphabetically on 4 pages. You may go directly to the other pages if you wish. Abstracts are broken down by: A to C  D to G  H to M and N to Z.

Abbey, A. (1991) Acquaintance rape and alcohol consumption on college campuses: How are they linked? Journal of American College Health, 39, 165-169.

This article explores the link between acquaintance rape and alcohol consumption among college students. Men's expectancies about alcohol, misperceptions of sexual intent, and justifications of sexual violence are reviewed. Women's abilities to send and receive cues and resist sexual assault are discussed. The article also examines stereotypes about women who drink and how women feel an increased sense of responsibility for being raped based on alcohol consumption. Implications for prevention programming and future research are presented.

Keywords: Alcohol, College, Male-Female Relations, Perpetration

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Abbey, A., Harnish, R.J. (1995). Perception of sexual intent: The role of gender, alcohol consumption, and rape supportive attitudes. Sex Roles, 32 297-313.

This study examined the effects of participant's gender, rape supportive attitudes, and target's alcohol consumption on participant's perceptions of target's sexual intent. Men were found to perceive female targets as behaving more sexually than did women, especially men high in rape myth acceptance. Male and female targets' alcohol consumption interacted, such that when both individuals were drinking alcohol they were perceived as being most sexual and their drinking was viewed as most appropriate. The rape myth acceptance and alcohol findings are discussed in terms of their implications for sexual assault and substance abuse prevention programming.

Keywords: Alcohol, College, Myths/Stereotypes

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Abbey, A., McAuslan, P., Ross, L.T., & Zawacki, T. (1999). Alcohol expectancies regarding sex, aggression, and sexual vulnerability: Reliability and validity assessment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 13(3). 174-182.

The study reviews the findings of a study on 715 college students who completed the Alcohol Expectancies Regarding Sex, Aggression, and Sexual Vulnerability Questionnaire. The instrument contains questions on alcohol expectancies in 4 areas (aggression, sexual affect, sexual drive, and vulnerability to sexual coercion) for 3 groups (self, women, and men).. Statistical analysis supported the hypothesis that participants' alcohol expectancies for other people were in line with their gender role stereotypes. Participants also believed that they were less influenced by alcohol than other people. The authors discuss the implications of their research for sexual assault prevention programs.

Keywords: Alcohol, College, Risk, Vulnerability

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Abrams, K. M., & Robinson, G. E. (1998). Stalking: Part I: An overview of the problem. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 43(5), 473-476.

This paper presents the results from the first of a 2-part review on stalking. It outlines the behaviors involved, motivation of offenders, and mental health consequences for the victim. Results of an extensive literature search suggest that as many as 1 in 20 women will be stalked during her lifetime. Most victims are female, while most offenders are male. Stalking behaviors range from secretive surveillance to threatening aggressive or violent acts. The majority of stalking occurrences occur in the context of failed intimate relationships. Stalkers may also exhibit erotomania or obsessional love while victims often experience anxiety, depression, guilt, helplessness, and PTSD.

Keywords: Stalking, Effects, Male-Female Relations

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Abrams, K. M., & Robinson, G. E. (1998). Stalking: Part II: Victims' problems with the legal system and therapeutic considerations. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 43(5), 477-481.

This paper presents the results from the second of a 2-part review on stalking. It focuses the therapeutic tasks for victims and therapists and on victim difficulty with the legal system. Results of an extensive literature search suggest that victims experience a number of emotional consequences from being stalked. Additional stressors result from the legal system's lack of response. The authors state that treatment of victims must be handled in a comprehensive manner, with attention to education and psychotherapy.

Keywords: Stalking, Effects

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Anderson, L., Stoelb, M.P., Duggan, P., Hieger, B., Kling, K. H., Payne, J.P., (1998). The effectiveness of two types of rape prevention programs in changing the rape-supportive attitudes of college students. Journal of College Student Development, 39, 131-142.

Examined the effectiveness of two rape prevention programs that aimed to change rape-supportive attitudes among college students. 215 undergraduates were assigned to 1 of 3 approaches: an interactive "talk show" intervention, a videotaped intervention, or a non-treatment control group. Rape-supportive attitudes were measured utilizing rape myth acceptance and attitudes toward rape scales. Measurements were obtained before the interventions, at posttest (immediately following the intervention), and 7-weeks after the intervention. Results indicate that both interventions reduced rape-supportive attitudes at posttest, but attitudes approached pre-intervention levels by 7 weeks. Implications for future rape prevention interventions are discussed.

Keywords: Curriculum, Evaluation, Prevention

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Anderson, N.L.R., Uman, G.C., Keenan, C.K., Koniak-Griffin, D., et al., (1996).The process of instrument development for ethnically diverse early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence,16, 427-450.

Describes the development of an evaluation instrument used to assess major content areas in the Reaching Adolescents and Parents (RAP) curriculum: a community-based family education intervention delivered to ethnically diverse communities in Los Angeles County. The authors discuss the challenges associated with creating a valid, reliable, and relevant tool that is audience appropriate. The wording, format, and question content were structured to be appropriate for ages 10-14. The tool was developed using focus groups and pilot-testing.

Keywords: Curriculum, Evaluation, Racial & Ethnic Differences

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Anderson, I.; Swainson, V. (2001). Perceived motivation for rape: Gender differences in beliefs about female and male rape. Current Research in Social Psychology, 6(8), np.

The present study directs attention to observers beliefs and perceptions about male and female rape. To date, there are two explanations for rape motivation: that rape is a sexually motivated act or that rape is an act motivated by power. Data from 120 participants suggests that rape is still regarded as being a crime motivated by sex rather than power. In addition, it is suggested that most men support the view of rape as a sexually motivated act despite the belief that the feminist explanation for rape was becoming better accepted among the general population. (posted 12/18/2002)

Keywords: Male-Female Relations, Perpetration.

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Arata, C. M., & Burkhart, B. R. (1998). Coping appraisals and adjustment to nonstranger sexual assault. Violence Against Women, 4(2), 224-239.

813 female undergraduate psychology students filled out questionnaires regarding past coercive sexual experiences in order to assess the relationship between appraisals, coping, and adjustment of nonstranger sexual assault. Symptomatic victims of sexual assault were compared to asymptomatic victims. Participants who were currently symptomatic were more likely to engage in characterological self-blame and were more likely to use coping strategies such as emotional expressiveness/social support seeking and coping activity/ cognitive restructuring. Victims of rape are more likely to use characterological self-blame than are victims of other forms of sexual assault. Overall the study showed an impact of coping and attribution on a general measure of functioning.

Keywords: College, Effects, Survivors

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Archer, J.; Vaughan, A. (2001). Evolutionary theories of rape. Psychology, Evolution & Gender, 3(1), 95-101.

The purpose of this article is to review and discuss different evolutionary views of rape and its implications. Evolutionary theories are divided into views of rape as an adaptive strategy or a by-product of other forms of adaptive behavior. These views are often criticized by feminists who support the view that rape is an exercise of power. However, in determining the origins of rape, the authors point out that forced mating has occurred in the animal kingdom predating patriarchal structures therefore rejecting feminist theories. (posted 12/18/2002)

Keywords: Male-Female relations, Perpetration.

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Arellano, C. M., Kuhn, J. A., & Chavez, E. L. (1997). Psychosocial correlates of sexual assault among Mexican American and White non-Hispanic adolescent females. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19(4), 446-460

A sample of 1,121 Mexican American and White non-Hispanic adolescent females were surveyed in order to examine the rates and correlates of sexual abuse in both groups. Psychosocial characteristics of those reporting sexual abuse (mean age 16.51 yrs) were compared to those reporting no sexual assault history (mean age 16.57 yrs) The results indicated that White non-Hispanic adolescents were twice as likely to report sexual assault as compared to Mexican American adolescents. Although rates of sexual assault appeared to differ across ethnicity, ethnicity did not seem to effect the relationship between sexual assault and psychosocial outcomes of victims. In general sexual assault victims reported more social isolation, emotional distress, and more atypical behavior, including drug and/or alcohol use. Sexual assault victims also reported problems with school adjustment, choice of friends and were more likely to come from homes with parental substance use and family conflict.

Keywords: Adolescent/High School, Effects, Racial and Ethnic Differences

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Avery-Leaf, S., Cascardi, M., O’Leary, K. D., & Cano, A. (1997). Efficacy of a dating violence prevention program on attitudes justifying aggression. Journal of Adolescent Health, 21, 11-17.

This paper discusses the value of a five-session dating violence prevention curriculum by comparing pre- and post-treatment differences in attitudes concerning dating violence among 193 high school students. Students taking health classes were randomly assigned either to the treatment condition or the control condition. Students in the treatment condition were exposed to a communication skills-based violence prevention program designed to address courtship aggression as a social and psychological issue. The Modified Conflict Tactics scale (MCTS), the Justification of Interpersonal Violence questionnaire (AIV), the Justification of Dating Jealousy and Violence scale (JDV), and the Social Desirability scale (SDS) were administered to all participants. Results revealed that within the treatment group there were significant changes in attitudes concerning dating aggression. Specifically, attitudes concerning justification of male-to-female dating aggression and female-to-male dating aggression were affected in that treatment subjects were less accepting of dating violence during an argument at the postprogram evaluation stage. The authors suggest that more sensitive measures of attitudes concerning dating violence (i.e. AIV and JDV) may be necessary since one half to two thirds of the students during the preprogram assessment already felt that physical violence is never justifiable during an argument. Overall changes in attitudes among participants suggests that this type of curriculum may be a useful tool for prevention of dating aggression.

Keywords: Adolescent/High School, Curriculum, Evaluation, Prevention

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Bachman, R. (1998). The factors related to rape reporting behavior and arrest: New evidence from the National Crime Victimization Survey. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 25(1), 8-29.

This article draws upon data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS, 1992-94) to examine police-reporting behavior by survivors of rape and sexual assault and the probability of an arrest being made in response to a report. Bachman provides a brief overview of rape law reforms in America followed by an analysis of several contextual characteristics. These include victim-offender relationship, location of victimization, offender's use of a weapon, extent of injury sustained by the victim, and three variables pertaining to the demographics of the sample (i.e. victim's age, marital status at time of offense, and age). Dependent variables in the analysis addressed police-reporting behavior and arrest of offender subsequent to the crime. The analyses focused on lone-offender, male-perpetrated rapes and sexual assaults against adult women. Results suggest that victims who sustain physical injuries (in addition to the rape or sexual assault) or women who are threatened by a weapon during the attack are more likely to report the offense to the police than other types of victims. In addition, it was found that African American victims of rape were more likely to report the offense to the police. The probability of an arrest being made, however, does not seem to be related to any of the contextual characteristics in the study. This study is limited in that it did not examine reporting behavior of victimizations where multiple offenders were involved, when the victim was a minor, or when the victim was male. Bachman concludes by suggesting that examination of other barriers to reporting behavior, in addition to those described above, is still necessary since less than one quarter of the rapes in this sample were ever reported to the police.

Keywords: Disclosure, Survivors

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Bachman, R. (2000). A Comparison of Annual Incidence Rates and Contextual Characteristics of Intimate-Perpetrated Violence Against Women From the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS). Violence Against Women, 6(8), 839-867.

The author asserts that research efforts employing diverse methodologies have yielded very different estimates of intimate-perpetrated violence against women. The article provides a comparison of annual incident rates of rape and physical assault against women as estimated by the National Violence Against Women Survey, cosponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institute of Justice-and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The author indicates that the data sets were made as comparable as possible via several data restrictions. These restrictions included restricting the NCVS data to include only incidents of rape (and not other sexual assaults) and physical assault against women 18 years of age and older. The methodological differences of each survey, that made comparisons tenuous are described, and recommendations for policy are provided.

Keywords: Prevalence, Statistics

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Barber, M. , Jenkins, R., & Jones, C. (2000). A survivor's group for women who have a learning disability. British Journal of Developmental Disabilities 46, 31-41.

The authors describes a women's group that was run for 6 women (aged 20-33 yrs) with learning disabilities and a history of sexual abuse/assault. The authors then review the format of the group sessions, the therapeutic process, as well as information learned from the evaluation of the impact of the group on variables including the women's self-esteem, psychological well-being, assertiveness and overall satisfaction with the intervention. The initial outcome was mostly favorable, however, this effect was not maintained for each measure at a 3 mo follow-up. The authors discuss possible reasons for the findings and make recommendations for future group work with this population.

Keywords: Survivors, Underserved Populations

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Beebe, D.K. Gulledge, K.M., Lee, C.M., Replogle, W. (1994). Prevalence of sexual assault among women patients seen in family practice clinics. Family Practice Research Journal, 14, 223-228.

This article discusses a study assessing the prevalence and characteristics of sexual assault among women patients attending two family medicine residency-training clinics. 204 women patients were asked to complete a questionnaire to identify rates and type of sexual assaults. 28.7% of the women reported some type of sexual assault, with low percentages of them ever reporting the incident to police, or seeking medical attention or counseling services. The need for family physicians to be aware of the prevalence of sexual assault in their patients, as well as understanding proper questioning, management, counseling and referral options is addressed. The need of family physicians to receive specific training for sexual assault victims is discussed, and clinical tips are included.

Keywords: Effects, Prevalence

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Belknap, J. (1989). The sexual victimization of unmarried women by nonrelative acquaintances. In Pirog-Good, Maureen A. (Ed), Jan E. Stets (Ed) et al. Violence in Dating Relationships: Emerging Social Issues.

The focus of this study is to analyze the sexual victimization, by a casual or well known acquaintance, of unmarried women 12 years of age and older. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey is examined for the years 1973-1982. This research serves to address some of the neglected issues that apply to the rape of unmarried women specifically, descriptions of the victims, the offenders, the offense, the response of the victims, and the degree of injury. The findings show the extent to which acquaintance rape occurs outside of the previously researched college student population. And it supports the emerging definition of date rape as a social problem. Suggestions, for future research on date rape, are made.

Keywords: Perpetration, Effects

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Belknap, J., Fisher, B. S., & Cullen, F. T. (1999). The Development of a Comprehensive Measure of the Sexual Victimization of College Women. Violence Against Women, 5(2), 185-214.

This authors indicate that sexual victimization has only recently been identified as an important problem on college and university campuses. They point out that researchers have used a number of different methodologies and sources of data to describe the extent and scope of sexual victimization of college women. The authors state that these studies, are often flawed by an abbreviated conceptualization of sexual victimization (one that omits sexual stalking and harassment), and by the failure to distinguish between the different ranges of both more and less serious sexual victimizations. This article also presents a measure of sexual victimization that includes incident reports.

Keywords: College, Harassment, Prevalence, Stalking

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Benson, D., Charlton, C., & Goodhart, F. (1992). Acquaintance rape on campus: A literature review. College Health, 40, 157-165.

This article provides an overview of several central aspects relevant to acquaintance or date rape on American college campuses. It addresses the definition of acquaintance rape, early research on the topic, the cultural context of rape, legal issues concerning acquaintance rape as a crime and as a campus disciplinary matter, adolescent attitudes and sexual socialization, the relationship between alcohol and sexual assault, characteristics of assailants, vulnerability factors among women, survivor responses, and institutional responses of colleges. The authors conclude by proposing several strategies that colleges can follow to increase awareness and prevention of acquaintance rape on campuses.

Keywords: Alcohol, College, Male-Female Relations, Risk, Survivors, Vulnerability

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Berg, D. R., & Lonsway, K. A., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1999). Rape prevention education for men: The effectiveness of empathy-induction techniques. Journal of College Student Development, 40(3), 219-234.

This article reports the results of a study in which 54 male undergraduates (mean age of 19.2 yrs) participated in a rape prevention education program that consisted of listening to an audiotape of a man or woman describing their experience of being raped. After two weeks the male students who listened to the female tape reported an increased likelihood to engage in rape-supportive behaviors and no difference in empathy or rape supportive attitudes. The authors caution that it is important to use care if attempting to implement this type of intervention.

Keywords: College, Evaluation, Male-female Relations, Perpetration

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Bergen, R.K., (1996). Wife Rape: Understanding the response of survivors and service providers. Sage Publications, Inc; Newbury Park, CA.

This book focuses on wife rape, victims help seeking behaviors, and responses of service providers. The author provides an in depth look at two organizations who provide services to this population. Two case studies explore the responses of workers at a battered women's shelter and rape crisis center to the problem of wife rape. Questions that guide this research are: 1) How do women understand and define their experiences of wife rape? 2) What is the response of agencies to women who seek their help?

Keywords: Community Attitudes & Responses, Marital Rape

Chapter 2: Understanding Women's Experiences of Wife Rape
The goal of this chapter is to develop a comprehensive understanding of wife rape by focusing on this type of sexual violence and how women cope with it. Women's coping strategies as wife rape survivors are discussed. This chapter draws on in-depth interviews with 40 survivors of wife rape who had contacted a service provider for assistance, and focuses on women's experiences of wife rape, the causes of wife rape, coping with wife rape, and emotional survival after wife rape.

Keywords: Marital Rape, Survivors

Chapter 3: Defining and Ending the Violence
This chapter focuses on how women define and deal with their experiences of marital rape. Interviews with survivors indicate that coping with violence, defining abuse as rape, and ending the violence are all interconnected. Interviews indicate that identifying a forced sexual experience as rape results in women being more likely to terminate the relationship or seek help. Naming the violence is crucial to ending it. The chapter focuses on the issues of defining wife rape, seeking help, effects of wife rape, and becoming a survivor.

Keywords: Marital Rape, Rape Crisis Centers, Survivors

Chapter 4: The Response of Two Agencies to Wife Rape
This chapter focuses on how service providers respond to survivors of wife rape. Two non profit organizations, Refuge and WASA, are profiled focusing on how they respond to and provide services for wife rape survivors. Women's responses to service providers are also included. Problems such as the shuttling survivors between agencies for assistance, and providing interventions that do not specifically address marital rape issues, are discussed.

Keywords: Marital Rape, Rape Crisis Centers

Chapter 5: Providing Services to Wife Rape Survivors- Current Trends and Future Directions
This chapter explores how women's organizations respond to marital rape. The results of a survey sent to battered women's shelters, rape crisis centers, and combination programs across the United States are analyzed. Ways in which agencies can improve services to survivors of wife rape are discussed. Policy recommendations in the areas of outreach, staff and volunteer training, and the inclusion of wife rape in an organization's agenda are detailed.

Keywords: Marital Rape, Rape Crisis Centers

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Bergman, L. (1992). Dating violence among high school students. Social Work, 37, 21-27.

This study estimates the proportion of high school students who have experienced physical, sexual, or severe (sexual and physical) violence in dating relationships. This study also determined how gender, age, grade point average, dating frequency, age at which dating began, and number of dating partners, were correlated with high school dating violence. Students from three Midwestern high schools participated in the study. One in four females in the study reported experiencing severe violence, the majority of victims did not report the violence. Number of dating partners was the most significant indicator of violence, with grade point average and dating frequency the next highest predictors.

Keywords: Adolescent/High School, Prevalence, Risk

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Berkowitz, A. (1992). College men as perpetrators of acquaintance rape and sexual assault: A review of recent research. Journal of American College Health, 40, 175-181.

This article proposes an integrated theory of sexual assault and provides a review of literature on the perpetration of acquaintance rape and sexual assault by college men. Topics covered include (1) how rape is defined, (2) the incidence of acquaintance rape and sexual assault, (3) characteristics of perpetrators (4) situational correlates of sexual assault, and (5) men's misperception of women's sexual intent. The need to develop effective rape-prevention programs for men is discussed.

Keywords: College, Male-Female Relations, Perpetration

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Berkowitz, A.D. (2001) Critical elements of sexual assault prevention and risk reduction programs for men and women. In: C. Kilmartin, Sexual Assault in Context: Teaching College Men About Gender. Holmes Beach: Learning Publications.

The author asserts that programs attempting to reduce the incidence of sexual assault on college and university campuses are increasingly available. Almost all programs have educational programs for men and/or women that provide information about sexual assault and teach participants things they can do to prevent it. The author points out that currently there is little consensus regarding the topics and content areas that should be covered in workshops for men and/or women. The chapter addresses this concern and contains sections on: 1) components of effective prevention education programs, 2) suggested phrasing for both male and female programs, and; 3) a description of essential program elements for workshops with men and/or women. The author emphasizes the importance of tailoring programs to meet the needs of each gender. The chapter also provides an outline of a comprehensive curriculum for training peer educators and others who provide workshops and programs.

Keywords: Prevention, Risk

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Berkowitz, A.D. (in press). Applications of social norms theory to other health and social justice. In: H. Wesley Perkins, Ed. The Social Norms Approach to Prevention, (for further information Dr Alan Berkowitz can be reached at

This chapter reviews theoretical assumptions of a social norms approach, assesses the relevance of the theory to health and social justice issues, and provides examples of social norms interventions for sexual assault prevention for men, second-hand effects of binge drinking, and anti-bias programming, as well as eating problems among women. The author operationalizes social norms theory as situations in which individuals incorrectly perceive the attitudes and/or behaviors of peers and other community members to be different from their own. The author posits that social norms theory can be used for interventions that correct these misperceptions by revealing the actual, healthier norms. Using social norms approach will have a beneficial effect on most individuals, who will either reduce their participation in potentially problematic behavior or be encouraged to engage in protective, healthy behaviors to be congruent with actual norms as opposed to misperceived norms.

Keywords: Alcohol, Prevention, Male-Female Relations

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Berkowitz, A.D. (in press). Fostering Men's Responsibility for Preventing Sexual Assault. In: Paul A. Schewe, (Ed), Preventing Intimate Partner Violence: Developmentally Appropriate Interventions Across the Lifespan. Washington D.C: American Psychological Association. (for further information Dr Alan Berkowitz can be reached at

The author writes that for effective sexual assault prevention men must look at their own potential for violence as well as taking a stand against the violence of other men. He further asserts that men must take responsibility for preventing sexual assault because most sexual violence is perpetrated by men against women, children, and other men. Although only a minority of men are sexually violent, all men are part of the culture/environment that allows other men to perpetrate violence. The chapter offers an overview of issues involved in working with men to encourage taking the responsibility for sexual assault prevention. The chapter also suggests a philosophy for rape prevention programming, provides a model for prevention education programs, reviews promising programs and strategies, and includes recommendations for future program development. The chapter's main focus is on the prevention of sexual assault perpetrated by men or boys in college and high school settings.

Keywords: Adolescent/High School, College, Curriculum, Prevention, Male-Female Relations

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Bernhard, L.A. (2000). Physical and sexual violence experienced by lesbian and heterosexual women. Violence Against Women, 6(1), 68-79.

The author sought to discover if there were differences in the violence experienced by lesbian and heterosexual women and whether lesbian and heterosexual women differ in their response to violence. A convenience sample of 136 lesbian and 79 heterosexual women (all Ss aged 19-67 yrs) completed a survey. The author found that while significantly more lesbians (51%) than heterosexual women (33%) reported nonsexual physical violence, there was no significant between group differences in the prevalence of sexual violence (lesbian 54%, heterosexual 44%). The author found that the principal actions for all women in response to violence were similar and that they included talking to someone, or doing nothing-all the author states that these passive strategies have limited value.

Keywords: Prevalence, Underserved Populations

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Binder, R.L., McNiel, D.E., (1987). Evaluation of a school-based sexual abuse prevention program: Cognitive and emotional effects. Child Abuse & Neglect,11, 497-506.

A 2-hr sexual abuse prevention workshop was presented to 88 children, 60 parents, and 12 teachers. Pretest-posttest questionnaires were administered to assess children's level of emotional distress (ED)and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention. The teachers completed questionnaires about Ss' level of ED approximately 2 weeks after the program. Comparison of Ss' knowledge before and after the program showed increases in knowledge about strategies for dealing with potential abuse, additionally children reported that the program made them feel safer and more confident in their ability to protect themselves.

Keywords: Evaluation, Prevention

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Boeringer, S. B. (1999). Associations of rape-supportive attitudes with fraternal and athletic participation.Violence Against Women, 5(1), 81-90.

The author examined rape-supportive attitudes in a sample of fraternity members, university athletes, and a control population. In all, a sample of 477 male university students were recruited. Results indicate that fraternity men report significantly greater endorsement of five statements supportive of rape and adversarial gender beliefs than did the controls. The author also found that athletes reported significantly greater agreement with 14 rape-supportive statements than did men in the control condition. The control group only reported greater agreement with 2 rape-supportive statements. This study tends to support the contention that there is a measurable relationship between rape-supportive attitudes and membership in fraternal or athletic organizations.

Keywords: Athletes/Fraternities, College

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Bondurant, B., (2001). University Women's Acknowledgment of Rape: Individual, Situational, and Social Factors. Violence Against Women, 7(3), 294-314.

The authors examine individual, situational, and social predictors of university women's admission of rape experiences. Results indicate that only individual and situational factors uniquely predicted acknowledgment. Women tend to acknowledge a rape if they experienced higher levels of violence during the rape, possessed factors congruent with the acquaintance of a rape script, and blamed their behavior for the rape. All women tended to blame the perpetrator more than themselves. Implications for rape awareness programs are discussed.

Keywords: College, Disclosure

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Borsari, B. E., & Carey, K. B. (1999). Understanding fraternity drinking: Five recurring themes in the literature, 1980-1998. J A College Health, 48, 30-37.

This article reviews the literature concerning fraternities and alcohol use on American campuses from 1980 to 1998 by focusing on issues related to (1) precollege drinking patterns, (2) the self-selection process of heavy drinkers into particular fraternities that endorse alcohol abuse, (3) the role of alcohol in fraternity socialization, (4) individuals’ misperception of their peers’ drinking norms, and (5) the physical environment of fraternity houses that enable and encourage alcohol abuse by providing easy access to alcohol and peer support in the absence of adult supervision. The authors emphasize that understanding the pervasive role of alcohol within fraternity social structures is fundamental to addressing alcohol abuse on college campuses. They also suggest that the effect of peer pressure among students may be a powerful tool for intervention. It can be used to disseminate and endorse normative behavior to counteract predominant misperceptions concerning alcohol use on campuses.

Keywords: Alcohol, Athletes/Fraternities, College

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Boswell, A.A., Spade, J.Z. (1996). Fraternities and collegiate rape culture: Why are some fraternities more dangerous places for women? Gender & Society, 10, 133-147.

This article examines social interactions at college fraternities identified as high or low for rape risk, as well as two local bars. Gender relations, the treatment of women, and attitudes towards rape are discussed. The authors found that women not known to fraternity members were at highest risk of rape. High-risk social settings were characterized by high alcohol consumption, loud music, little conversation/interaction among men and women, routine degradation of women, and more full participation in the "hook-up scene," leading to the probability of women becoming faceless victims. The authors' findings suggest that an environment more conducive to conversation can promote positive interactions between men and women. They suggest that in order to eliminate campus rape culture, student leaders and administrators must examine the situations in which women and men meet and restructure these settings to provide opportunities for respectful interaction.

Keywords: Athletes/Fraternities, Risk

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Brener, N. D., McMahon, P. M., Warren, C. W., & Douglas, K. A. (1999). Forced sexual intercourse and associated health risk behaviors among female college students in the United States. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 252-259.

The study presented in this article analyzes data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) to assess the prevalence of rape among college female students. It also investigates the association between rape and health risk behaviors. This study supports the findings of a study by Koss et al. (1987), which found that about 15% of a national sample of college women had been raped since age 14. The NCHRBS uses a sample of full and part-time undergraduate students, over the age of 18, from the 148 colleges and universities who participated in the study. They were asked to answer a questionnaire about their health risk behaviors. Students were asked the question: "During your life, have you ever been forced to have sexual intercourse against your will?" Those who answered "yes" to this question were considered to have been raped. In addition students were asked about their current use of tobacco, episodic heavy drinking, driving after drinking alcohol, and marijuana use. They were also asked about engaging in physical fighting and entertaining thoughts of suicide. Students also answered questions relating to sexual behavior. A succession of logistic analyses was done to determine the relationship between having experienced forced sexual intercourse and engaging in health risk behaviors. The results show that women who had experienced forced sexual intercourse had increased odds of engaging in each of the health-risk behaviors examined. At least two explanations exist for this type of relationship: 1) After women are raped they are more likely to engage in health-risk behaviors and 2) engaging in health-risk behaviors may increase women's vulnerability to forced sexual intercourse. The present study has several limitations that are discussed. Despite the limitations, the fact that 1 in 5 women has experienced forced sexual intercourse in her lifetime indicates the need for increased prevention efforts.

Keyword: Alcohol, College, Effects, Prevalence, Vulnerability

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Brown, H., Stein, J., & Turk, V. (1995). The sexual abuse of adults with learning disabilities: Report of a second two-year incidence survey. Mental Handicap Research, 8, 3-24.

This article reports the results of a survey conducted in the United Kingdom. The survey was administered to discover the rate of sexual abuse of adults with learning disabilities. The authors found that both men and women were at risk. Consistent with the literature the authors found that perpetrators were predominantly men and that the perpetrator was usually known to the survivor. The authors also noted a significant increase in the proportion of men with learning disabilities reporting sexual abuse. The authors indicate that although there is increased awareness about the sexual abuse of men and women with learning disabilities that service agencies have not developed systems for reporting sexual abuse.

Keywords: Underserved Populations

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Budin, L. E. & Johnson, C. F. (1989). Sex abuse prevention programs: Offenders’ attitudes about their efficacy. Child Abuse and Neglect, 13, 77-87.

This study assessed sex abuse prevention education methods for children by drawing upon input from 72 convicted sex abusers at a correctional facility in Ohio. Perpetrators were surveyed concerning how they approached children, how they solicited children as victims, how they prevented children from reporting, and how they would prevent the sexual abuse of children. Results revealed that incestuous perpetrators used similar tactics as non-incestuous perpetrators to gain the trust of children. However, certain methods were used more frequently by incestuous perpetrators than non-incestuous perpetrators. For example, non-incestuous perpetrators were more likely to give their victims toys, to use the victim’s friend, and to acquire victims who had been previously victimized by the perpetrator’s friends. Overall, perpetrators tended to focus their tactics on children who were described as passive, troubled, lonely, and from broken homes. The perpetrators’ perceptions of the efficacy of sex abuse prevention methods were also assessed. The perpetrators in this study suggest that children should be taught to report abuse, to say “no” to assailants, to be educated about proper handling of their genitalia, and to refrain from getting into cars with strangers. While there are significant limitations to this type of study, input from abusers may provide useful information for strengthening child abuse prevention programs.

Keywords: Perpetration, Prevention, Vulnerability

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Bufkin, J., Eschholz, S. (2000). Images of Sex and Rape: A Content Analysis of Popular Film. Violence Against Women, 6(12), 1317-1344.

The authors conducted a content analysis of the 50 top-grossing films in 1996 to measure the prevalence and scope of sex and rape depictions. The authors conclude that movies tend to present patriarchal vision of sex and rape. In the movies rapes are committed by disturbed, sadistic, lower-class persons who prey on children and the weak. The authors contend that this unidimensional and limited picture of rape may actually help to perpetuate the real problem of rape and sexual abuse in our society in that they ignore the reality of most real life rapes.

Keywords: Myths/Stereotypes

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Burian, B. K., Yanico, B.J., & Martinez, C. R. (1998). Group gender composition effects on judgments of sexual harassment. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22(3), 465-480.

A mock jury approach was used with 116 male and 113 female undergraduates to see whether participant gender, researcher gender, and group gender composition (ratio of women to men) impact individual judgments about sexual harassment. More women (58.4%) made affirmative sexual harassment judgments as compared to men (35.3%) Results also indicated that when a mock jury was led by male researchers, men in groups who were outnumbered by women indicated less belief that sexual harassment The authors posit that ingroup and outgroup behaviors explain these results.

Keywords: College, Sexual Harassment

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Burt, M.R (1998). Rape Myths. In Mary E. Odem (ED.), Confronting rape and sexual assault. Worlds of Women, (pp. 129-144) Wilmington DE. SR Books/Scholarly Resources Inc.

This chapter outlines four types of rape myths, which focus on the victim: nobody was harmed, nothing happened, she wanted or liked it, and she deserved it. Myths about sexuality and rapists are also discussed. It is posited that acceptance of rape myths negate the reality of rape and lead to rape supportive attitudes particularly in cases of acquaintance rape. When rape is viewed as "unreal" the victims are subject to blame and disparagement and do not receive needed support. Rejecting the reality of rape makes prosecution harder and recovery more complicated.

Keywords: Legal Responses, Myths

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Burt , M.R. (1980). Cultural myths and supports for rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 217-230.

Results from this study indicate that attitudes endorsing sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, and acceptance of interpersonal violence lead to greater acceptance of rape myths. Implications for understanding and changing rape supportive beliefs are discussed.

Keywords: Myths

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Buss, D. M., Schmitt D. P. (1993). Sexual Strategies Theory: An Evolutionary Perspective on Human Mating. Psychological Review, 100.

This article explains the key elements of the Sexual Strategies Theory. It is hypothesized that men and women have evolved psychological mechanisms for pursuing short-term and long-term mating situations. Nine hypotheses and 22 predictions of the Sexual Strategies Theory are tested using a series of empirical studies. Men and women confront different mate selection problems in both long and short term mating contexts. Some of the adaptive problems such as sexual accessibility, commitment seeking and avoidance, assessment of mate value as well as others are addressed. Some limitations of this study are presented, yet the Sexual Strategies Theory provides the most detailed analysis to date.

Keywords: Male-Female Relations

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Campbell, R., Barnes, H. E., Ahrens, C. E., Wasco, S. M., Zaragoza-Diesfeld, Y., & Sefl, T. (1999). Community services for rape survivors enhancing psychological well-being or increasing trauma? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(6), 847-858.

Despite the availability of community services geared towards addressing the aftermath of a sexual assault, many survivors feel as if the experience of seeking assistance from legal, medical, and mental health systems only extends the trauma (i.e. secondary victimization). This study examined the relationship between such secondary victimization and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among 102 female rape survivors. Analyses concerning social system contact and rape survivor’s psychological well-being revealed that the group most at risk for high PTSD levels postrape were survivors of nonstranger rape who had received minimal assistance from the legal or medical system and had experienced victim-blaming behaviors from system personnel. Although this group had the highest PTSD levels of all survivors in the study, they did show a decrease in their PTSD levels after obtaining continued assistance from the mental health system.

Keywords: Effects, Survivors

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Campbell, J. C., & Soeken, K. L. (1999). Forced sex and intimate partner violence: Effects on women's risk and women's health. Violence Against Women 5(9), 1017-1035.

Authors examined the relationship between forced sex and women's self-esteem and health status, (beyond presenting physical and emotional abuse). A volunteer community sample of 159 battered women (mean age 31.6 yrs; 77% African American) completed interviews about forced sex by their partner (or ex-partner). Results indicate that 45.9% of the sample were sexually assaulted as well as physically abused. Other than ethnicity, there were no demographic differences between those who were forced into sex and those who were not, additionally there was no difference in history of child sexual abuse. However, women who were sexually assaulted reported higher scores on negative general health symptoms, gynecological symptoms, and risk factors for homicide victimization even when controlling for physical abuse and demographic variables. The authors also found that the number of sexual assaults (childhood, rape, and intimate partner) was significantly correlated with depression and body image.

Keywords: Effects, Survivors

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Campbell, J. C. (2000). Promise and Perils of Surveillance in Addressing Violence Against Women Violence Against Women, 6(7), 705-727.

The author asserts that surveillance in the field of violence against women is an important tool to establish and track prevalence over time, identify risk groups and factors, and evaluate interventions. They can also decrease research costs and can be established in legal, health, and social service systems, the fields that interact with victims. However a surveillance system for sexual assault would not be a perfect system. The author examines issues specific to surveillance in this field, including its definitions, prevalence variations, sensitivity and specificity issues, and safety concerns. The author concludes by offering some creative approaches to address these problems.

Keywords: Statistics

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Chang, B. H.; Skinner, K. M.; Boehmer, U. (2001). Religion and mental health among women veterans with sexual assault experience. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 31(1), 77-95.

This study examines the association of religiosity, mental health functioning, and depression among women who experienced sexual assault. Using a sample of women veterans, religion was measured as attendance of religious services and subjective religious beliefs. Results suggest that religion may have a buffering effect on health in response to traumatic life events. (posted 12/18/2002)

Keywords: Treatment, Survivors, Religion.

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Clark III, R. D., Hatfield, E. (1989). Gender Differences in Receptivity to Sexual Offers. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 2(1),

Cultural stereotypes suggest that men are eager for sexual intercourse and women set limits. This article reviews various theories of the sexual interests of men and women and looks at data that supports these theories. Two experimental tests of this hypothesis are reported here. In these experiments men and women were asked very direct questions about engaging in sexual activity with the person of the opposite sex who asked the question. The results show that men and women responded as traditionalists would expect them to. There are significant gender differences in the attitudes toward sex. Further study of the impact of AIDS on sexual roles is suggested.

Keywords: Male-Female Relations

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Collins, N. L., Read, S.J. (1994). Cognitive representations of attachment: The structure and function of working models. In Bartholemew, Kim (Ed.), Perlman, Daniel (Ed.), et al. Attachment Processes in Adulthood.

The purpose of this article is to focus on how working models, the internal mental representations that individuals develop of the world and of significant people including themselves, affect cognitive representations of attachment. Working models are developed out of relationships from infancy to adulthood and can work on intrapersonal levels and affect interpersonal relationships. Attachment theory, based on working models, proposes that close relationships or attachments in adulthood cannot be understood without considering social and emotional experiences that came before. Many of the ideas presented here are inconclusive however they are meant to stimulate thought about attachment models in a more precise and systematic way and encourage further research.

Keywords: Male-Female Relations

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Cook, T.J., Schmid, T.L., Braddy, B.A. & Orenstein, D., (1992). Evaluating community-based program impacts. Journal of Health Education, 23, 183-186.

This study outlines process evaluation methodology that focuses on community level variables in assessing program effects. Recommendations include tracking the level of exposure to media campaigns, and measuring community penetration.

Keywords: Community Attitudes & Responses, Evaluation

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Corcoran, K. J. (1999). Sexual aggression and sociocultural risk. American Psychologist, 54(1), 70-71.

This commentary is a critical analysis of Hall and Barongan’s 1997 article entitled “Prevention of sexual aggression: Sociocultural risk and protective factors” that appeared in American Psychologist (vol. 52, pp. 5-14). Corcoran argues that Hall and Barongan’s hypothesis concerning the “protective effect of ethnic minority socialization” in preventing sexual aggression is misguided on two counts: for one, they try to interpret a nonsignificant result from a single study and they misinterpret meaningful information in the available data. Corcoran suggests that the rate of occurrence of sexual aggression within a cultural group is more meaningful than the proportion of total perpetrators within that group. Furthermore, he proposes that the use of ethnic labeling, while consistent with a multicultural approach, belies the complexities of the causes and protective factors related to sexual aggression.

Keywords: Racial and Ethnic Differences, Risk

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Cortina, L. M., Swan, S. Fitzgerald, L. F., & Waldo, C. (1998). Sexual harassment and assault: Chilling the climate for women in academia. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22(3), 419-441.

This article documents the widespread and harmful extent of sexual harassment and sexual assault on college campuses. The authors report that few studies have investigated the impact of harassment and assault in academia. 1,037 female undergraduate and graduate students were surveyed regarding their experiences with sexual harassment and assault and how having been a victim of either effected their scholarship. The extent and impact of double victimization was also investigated Issues of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity are examined, with membership in different groups affecting victimization incidence.

Keywords: College, Harassment, Racial and Ethnic Differences

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Cousins, J.B., Leithwood, K.A. (1986). Current empirical research on evaluation utilization. Review of Educational Research, 56, 331-364. This article reviews research on the use of evaluation results. 65 studies in education, mental health, and social services are discussed in terms of their methodology and the relationships between independent and dependent variables. The authors describe 12 factors associated with evaluation implementation, decision making and policy setting.

Keywords: Evaluation

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Coxell, A. W., & King, M. B. (1996). Male victims of rape and sexual abuse. Sexual & Marital Therapy, 11(3) 297-308.

This article reviews the sexual assault of adult males. A number of myths concerning the survivors, perpetrators, and plausibility of such assaults are critically examined. Sexual assault prevalence data from 1,480 males is presented. The results from a study of coercion in gay relationships is also included. The problems that males reported after sexual assault are discussed, including PTSD, sexual problems, difficulties forming close relationships, mistrust of adult men, suicide attempts, confusion about sexual orientation, and various mood disorders. Sexual assault by females (which is comparatively rare) tends to leave men less traumatized than sexual assaults by men because these types of assaults are less likely to involve physical force and because same-sex sexual contact, which is traumatic in itself to heterosexual males, is not involved.

Keywords: Male Rape, Effects, Perpetration

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Coyle, B.S., Wolan, D.L. Van Horn, A.S. (1996). The prevalence of physical and sexual abuse in women veterans seeking care at a veterans affairs medical center. Military Medicine, 161, 588-593.

This study examines the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse in a sample of female veterans seeking care at a Veteran's Affairs Medical Center. The article discusses a military policy allowing services only for female veterans who were sexually assaulted while on duty. The study examines percentages of sexual assault in women while on active duty and occurrences of civilian rape, and discusses that there are long term consequences for all types of sexual abuse/assault.

Keywords: Effects, Prevalence

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