Our work on stress builds on the observation that there are dense concentrations of stress hormone receptors in hippocampus, and that as a consequence hippocampal function is modulated by the levels of this hormone. We have focused on the impact of variations in stress hormone on development and learning, with a recent interest in the interactions between stress hormone, sleep and memory. Papers on these topics can be downloaded below.


Kallai, J., Karádi, K., Thomas, K.G.F., Jacobs, W. J., & Nadel, L. The role of spatial orientation disturbances in maintenances of panic disorder with agoraphobia: Agoraphobia and the representation of space. In A. Berthoz and J. Jouvent (eds). Anxiety and Spatial Cognition, Elsevier, Paris. (in press)

Payne, J.D. and Nadel, L. Sleep, dreams and memory consolidation: The role of the stress hormone cortisol. Learning and Memory, 11: 671-678, 2004.

Payne, J.D., Nadel, L., Britton, W.B. & Jacobs, W.J. The Biopsychology of Trauma and Memory in Humans, in Reisberg, D. & Hertel, P. (Eds.), Memory and Emotion, N.Y.: pp. 76-128, Oxford University Press, 2003.

Payne, J.D., Nadel, L., Allen, J.J.B., Thomas, K.G.F. & Jacobs, W.J. Stress increases false memories. Memory, 10: 1-6, 2002.

Nadel, L. & Payne, J. The relationship between episodic memory and context: Clues from memory errors made while under stress. Physiological Research, 51 (Suppl.1): S3-S11, 2002.

Jacobs, W.J. and Nadel, L. The first panic attack. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 53: 92-107, 1999.

Jacobs, W.J., Laurance, H.E., Thomas, K.G.F., Luczak, S.E. and Nadel, L. On the veracity and variability of traumatic memory. Traumatology, 2: #2, 1996

Nadel, L. & Jacobs, W.J. Traumatic memory is special. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7: 154-157, 1998.

Jacobs, W.J. & Nadel, L. Neurobiology of reconstructed memory. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4: 1110-1134, 1998.

Nadel, L. and Jacobs, W.J. The role of the hippocampus in PTSD, panic and phobia, In N. Kato (Ed.) Hippocampus: Functions and Clinical Relevance, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science B.V., 1996.

Thomas, K.G.F., Laurance, H., Jacobs, W.J. and Nadel, L. Memory for Traumatic Events: Formulating Hypotheses and Critical Experiments Traumatology, 1: #2, 1995.

Jacobs, W.J., Nadel, L. and Hayden, V.C. Anxiety disorders. In D. Stein and J. Young (Eds.), Cognitive science and clinical disorders pp. 211-233, San Diego: Academic Press, 1992.

Tataryn, D., Nadel, L. and Jacobs, W.J. Cognitive therapy and cognitive science. In A. Freeman, K. Simon, L. Beutler and H. Arkowitz (Eds.) Comprehensive handbook of cognitive therapy. New York: Plenum Press, 1989.

Nadel, L. and Willner, J. Some implications of postnatal maturation in the hippocampal formation. In V. Chan-Palay and C. Köhler (Eds.) The hippocampus: new vistas. New York: AR Liss, 1989.

Wilson, D.A., Willner, J., Kurz, E.M. and Nadel, L. Early experience alters brain plasticity. Behavioural Brain Research 21: 223-227, 1986.