Our work on development has had three main foci in recent years: (1) the development of competence in spatial mapping, using a computerized version of the Morris water maze in children of various ages; (2) the status of the so-called "geometric module", and the ability of children of various ages to integrate geometric and landmark information in solving orientation and re-orientation tasks; and (3) the implications of postnatal maturation of the hippocampus, in particular with respect to improper development.

Papers dealing with each of these projects can be downloaded below; additional material can be found on the Down syndrome page.


Hupbach, A. and Nadel, L. Reorientation in a rhombic-shaped environment: No evidence for an encapsulated geometric module. (Cognitive Development, in press).

Nadel, L. and Hupbach, A. Cross-species comparisons in development: The case of the spatial “module”. In M.H. Johnson & Y. Munakata (eds). Attention and Performance XXI, Oxford, Oxford University Press (in press).

Laurance, H.E., Learmonth, A.E., Nadel, L. & Jacobs, W.J. Maturation of spatial navigation strategies: Converging findings from computerized spatial environments and self report. Journal of Cognition and Development, 4: 211-238, 2003.

Uecker, A. & Nadel, L. Spatial but not object memory impairments in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) American Journal of Mental Retardation, 103: 12-18, 1998.

Uecker, A. and Nadel, L. Spatial locations gone awry: Object and spatial memory deficits in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 34: 209-223, 1996.

Wilcox, T., Nadel, L. and Rosser, R. Location Memory in Healthy Preterm and Fullterm Infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 19: 309-323, 1996.

Wilcox, T., Rosser, R. and Nadel, L. Representation of object location in 6.5-month-old infants. Cognitive Development, 9: 193-209, 1994.

Nadel, L., Wilson, L. and Kurz, E.M. Hippocampus: Effects of alterations in timing of development. In G. Turkewitz & D. Devenny, (Eds.), Developmental time and timing, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1992.

Nadel, L. and Willner, J. Some implications of postnatal maturation in the hippocampal formation. In V. Chan-Palay and C. Köhler (Eds.) The hippocampus: new vistas. New York: AR Liss, 1989.

Nadel, L. and Zola-Morgan, S. Infantile amnesia: a neurobiological perspective. In
M.Moscovitch (Ed.) Infant memory. Pp. 145-172, New York: Plenum Press, 1984.