Lab and Research
have brought two research traditions together to study how perception relates to
comprehension in reading. Eye movement research has for a century been used to
understand how perception in reading provides the brain with sensory input.
Miscue analysis, with over 40 years of history, provides a “window on
the reading process” and reveals the knowledge and strategies readers use as
they comprehend written texts. By a close examination of the relationships of
the expected and observed responses (miscues) in oral reading we get strong
insights into the reader’s process of making sense of written language.
call the merged research methodology Eye Movement and Miscue Analysis (EMMA). By
tracking eye movements of readers while we record their oral reading, we produce
a powerful database for the study of readers’ construction of meaning. The
data is both a continuous record of the eye fixations and movements over an
entire text and a continuous record of the oral reading of that text and the
miscues readers produce.
Laboratories in the United
(click names on map)
on Eye Movement and EMMA research
P. (In press). All eyes have it. NH: Heinemann.
P. (2003). Envisioning story: The eye movements of beginning readers.
Literacy Teaching and Learning, 7, (1&2), 77-89.
P. (2002). New insights: Eye fixations and the reading process. Talking
13 (2), 16-20.
P. (2001). First-grade beginning reader’s use of pictures and print as they
Unpublished doctoral dissertation:
A. (2001). The eyes have it: Oral miscue and eye movement analysis of the
reading of fourth grade Spanish/English bilinguals. Unpublished doctoral
K., Knox, M., and Brown, J. (2007). Eye movements and strategic reading. In
Critical Issues in Literacy Development. NY: Erlbaum.
S. & Paulson, E.J. (2001). What does the machine reveal about the
reading process? Based on Russian text material with the use of an eye movement
fixation apparatus. (In Russian) 1st National
E. (July, 2005). “Viewing eye movements during reading through the lens of
chaos theory: How reading is like the weather.” Reading Research Quarterly, 40 (3).
E., Flurkey, A., Goodman, Y., & Goodman, K. (2003). Eye movements and
Yearbook of the National
E. and Freeman, A. (2003). Insight from the eyes: The
science of effective
reading instruction. NH: Heinemann.
E. & Henry, J. (2002). Does the degree of reading power assessment reflect
reading process? An eye-movement examination. Journal of Adolescent & Adult
Literacy, 46 (3), 234-244.
E. (2002). Are oral reading word omissions and substitutions caused by careless
eye movements? The Journal of Reading Psychology, 23 (1), 45-66.
E. (2000). Adult readers’ eye movement during the production of oral miscues.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation:
E. & Goodman, K. (January 1999). Influential studies in eye movement
research. Reading Online, www.readingonline.org.
E. & Goodman, K. (1999) “Eye
movements and miscue analysis: What do the
eyes do when a reader makes a miscue?”
Y. (2003). The processing of the Japanese particles Wa
and Ga using eye
movement research and miscue analysis: Reading comprehension of a Japanese story
by Japanese English bilinguals. Canadian Association for Japanese Language
Education, vol.5, 103-116.
ã Duckett 2001
Eye Movement and Miscue Analysis
Research in progress focuses on
Varied ages and languages: Elementary school readers, adolescent readers, adult readers, Chinese readers, Japanese readers, Russian readers, Bilingual Spanish-English readers, Bilingual French-English readers and speakers of other languages, EMMA in sight singing (MEMMA).
Varied materials and other features: illustrated texts, multiple genre text, nonfiction, The Boat in the Basement, musical notation, effect of font size on EMMA readings, perceptual units, Retrospective Eye Movement and Miscue Analysis (REMMA).
for LRC Courses and Professional Development
Demonstrations for and involvement of LRC students and faculty at request.
Items in the EMMA Lab
Model 504 Eye tracker, pan/tilt eye camera, eye camera remote control, *Micron computers and flat screen monitor, speakers, specialty monitors, microphone connected to audio tape recorder, *HP laser Jet 3100 fax/printer/copier/scanner, *Toshiba VCR. (*Supplied by the Goodmans).