Once you have set the card up (and if you're using the Measurement Computing stuff you need to use their InstaCal software before you use anything else) with the TimeDX PIO Test you must make DMDX use that device by declaring one of the input devices a PIO can behave as using the <InputDevice> keyword. The first such cards were named PIO-12 cards (despite the fact that they had 24 I/O lines) so DMDX uses the name PIO12 to refer to whatever PIO card DMDX happens to be using. The various devices primarily vary depending on how many of the I/O lines are used for input and how many for output, the original PIO12 device using 16 input lines and 8 output lines. After that queued variations on devices exist that were added to handle issues under Windows 2000 and XP (the non-queued versions should not be used under win2K/XP).
There are two methods that DMDX can use to output data, latched and non-latched with the default mode being latched outputs, once a word is output it stays output. Non-latched mode can be used with the <RevertOutput> parameter where DMDX reverts the output to a specified state a specified period after the data is output. <RevertOutput> can also be used to control the initial state of the PIO and does not also necessarily switch DMDX to non-latched mode. Data can be output once per frame with <Output> and it's hexadecimal equivalent. Output data can be inverted with <InvertOutput>.
When DMDX uses the PIO for input it uses negative logic, logic 0 (0 Volts) is an active signal, logic 1 (5V) is inactive. In order for DMDX to see signals from the PIO the DMDX octal MIP word must be set to mask off unused bits of input, the default value for this word is 7 which limits DMDX's input to the lower 3 bits of input. Bits must also be mapped to various DMDX signals if the defaults are not usable, see the Input section.
Note that if you need to build an
interface to a Neuroscan machine there's a very technical issue that will need
some special action before you start building cables due to DMDX's default use
of port C for output and the Measurement Computing software splitting that into
two 4 bit nibbles requiring two separate requests from DMDX and every now and
then DMDX gets interrupted causing there to be a few microseconds between the
nibbles and Neuroscan sees this as two events and gets pissy because it wants a
resting state between codes. You're probably going to want to use the port B
bits and pio12OP16 to output 16 bits of data and only use the top 8 bits of the
output word (there are ways to semi-elegantly deal with this in your item file
if you get that far using counters and multipliers).