Break up of Central American Federation.
US troops again intervene to crush Liberal - led national uprising, after
which a permanent force of US Marines are based in
US Marines withdrawn from
Liberals agree to surrender on US terms, but one Liberal leader, General Sandino, refuses and continues to fight on with his 300 strong force based in the north.
With promise that US Marines will leave (which they did in 1933) Sandino agrees to stop fighting after receiving guarantees for some peasant co-operatives.
Sandino killed as he attends banquest
in the Presidential Palace in a plot arranged by Somoza, then head of the'
Nicaraguan National Guard, and the
Somoza seizes power and used his position to eventually
become the richest person in
New Sandinista guerrilla campaign under General Raudeles opens up in the north of the country.
Foundations of FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front)
by Carlos Fonseca Amador, Silvio Mayorga
and Tomas Borge. Fonseca was a former member
of the PSN (the pro -
FSLN begins guerilla activity.
After heavy defeats the FSLN suspends all military activity.
Earthquake destroys the Nicaraguan capital
FSLN restarts military activity a few days after the formation of the Democratic Liberation Union (UDEL), a 'popular front' of liberal capitalists and workers' organisations.
FSLN majority expel the 'Proletarian Tendency' led by Jaime Wheelock which opposes all military adventurism and argued for the FSLN to root itself first in the proletariat.
Further division within the FSLN between the majority Tercerista' tendency and the 'protracted people's war' tendency GPP). The Tercerists, led by Daniel Ortega favoured commando-type actions, urban guerrilla activity similar to that of the Uruguayan Tupamaros, an orientation toward an earlier uprising and supported the idea of broad alliances with sections of the bourgeoisie. The GPP, led originally by Tomas Borge, wanted to maintain a strategy of rural guerrilla warfare.
Somoza lifts state of emergency after apparently crushing FSLN, but one month later Tercerista tendency of FSLN launches new attacks. In November UDEL publish appeal calling for the creation of a democratic alternative to Somoza regime which should include FSLN.
Assassination by Somoza of UDEL leader and "La Prensa' movement against regime. 120,000 attend Chamorro's funeral, employers and unions call general strike FSLN stage more attacks.
July, formation of FAO, a broad opposition front linking together forces ranging from the MDN, led by the millionaire industrialist Alfonso Robelo, to the FSLN Terceristas. The Terceristas carried on military attacks while the proletarian tendency' and GPP wings carried on widespread political work. Uprisings and strikes develop throughout the country, although the September movement in Leon and Esteli is suppressed with the loss of 6,000 lives.
November Terceristas break from FAO in protest at US interference in talks between the FAD and Somoza.
February: Formation of National Patriotic Front (FPN) by the Sandinistas, trade unions, MPU la front of popular organisations) and some minor bourgeois groups.
March: Reunification of FSLN and resumption of its military offensive amid continuing mass movements. Steadily new fronts were opened up.
June: Spontaneous uprising in the capital,
July: Entry of Sandinistas into