Prof. Felice L. Bedford

bookcoverimage am.jpgDepartment of Psychology, University of Arizona

"I haven't had a chance to actually read your book yet, but it looks fascinating." ALAN ALDA, award-winning actor, director, and science educator


"Your book was very inspirational and I kept putting it down to jot down ideas."DR. MARK S. RIDER, Clinical Psychologist, Texas


"I read the book (Cab Drivers), really loved it! I especially like how your tone in the book is casual, a few times I laughed out loud. That is my preferred way of reading and I bet student's will like it also in the case that it becomes assigned reading for someone." SABRINA PETERSON, graduate student, University of California, Riverside


"I was reading and reading and re reading and it looks like you were writing my mind. How

curious and original”  PEDRO MARTINEZ  Info Technologist


ANNOUNCING THE BOOK! Everything you ever wanted to know about perceptual learning, adaptation, and plasticity. Amazon  Barnes & Noble  Bulk Sales


Already read it? Feel free to give your copy away to someone who would like to read it, but please consider supporting authors and publishers by not selling it. I would be delighted to hear comments or questions. Send to me here


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 We Want to Hear From You

 Research Interests

 Teaching Interests


 About Me



We want to hear from you. 

Do any of these 6 items apply to you? Send email.


Do you have mitochondrial DNA haplogroup T2e?


Are you of Mexican descent and descended from Isabel de Castro y

Figueroa, born Spain circa 1570? (or from Inez de la Cerda y Castro?).

We would like to hear from you.


Do you do research on the metabolism of tryamine?  Would appreciate an email.


Are you missing a sense of direction? Do you get lost wherever you go?

Or maybe you confuse left with right? If you are challenged spatially in any way,

we want to hear from you.


Are you interested in using mindfulness meditation and imagery to heal illness?

Right now we are especially interested in autoimmunity.


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Are you at least 50% Sephardic via Ottoman Empire or Romaniote and interested in genetic testing?

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Research Interests

Top 10 List

1) Perception and Well-Being including mindfulness (meditation), guided imagery, and the immune system as a perceptual sense

2) Genetics in psychology and evolution

3) Effects of experience on perception and varieties of perceptual learning, plasticity, and adaptation

4) Spatial challenges such as getting lost, left-right confusion, trouble putting puzzles together

5) Mitochondrial DNA in population genetics, disease, and energy

6) Application of perception to society including eyewitness identification, "other race effect" , national security, and expert testimony

7) Parallels between perception of space and perception of time

8) How development requires perceptual-motor coordination to change, including math models

9) How the mind decides if two things – they can be anything - refer to the same source or two different sources Jump to publication

10) Assorted phenomena such as prism adaptation, ventriloquism, McCollough Effect, wine tasting, McGurk Effect, rubber hand illusion, pointing in infants and adults, and the Not-the-Liver Fallacy


If you are interested in pursuing any of these research avenues, please feel free to email.

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About Me

I was born in Brooklyn, New York and got my Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. That pretty phi beta kappa key.jpgmuch covers it. Curriculum Vitae available upon request.

summa small.jpg Ancestry & DNA

Brooklyn, NY


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Contact Information


SMail: University of Arizona, Department of Psychology, PO Box 210068, Tucson, AZ 85721



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Teaching interests

Longevity. Contact me if interested

All levels of the curriculum from Freshman to Graduate - Introductory Psychology (award winning!), Perceptual Learning and adaptation (a customer favorite!), Genetics of Psychology, laboratory classes, Sensation and Perception, Learning (human and animal), Cognitive Psychology, Mathematics for Psychology, Evolution and Psychology, Cognitive Development, Experimental Methods. Special interest in Introductory Psychology and in students with financially disadvantaged backgrounds.

Sample Syllabus: Sensation and Perception

Perceptual Learning and Adaptation

Coming soon: Genetics of Psychology PowerpoINTS from Students!

Perceptual Learning Class Picture

Class Picture - another class Happy Class

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Bedford, F. L. (2013). All Cab Drivers Look Alike: The Science of Changing Perception Through Experience. Tivoli Press. 380 pages, 71 illustrations Amazon  Barnes & Noble



Journal Articles  [newspaper and magazine publications in brackets]


Bedford, F.L. (in press for 2015). Perceptual mindfulness and imagery for chronic pain and skin disorders in a busy college population. Journal of Pain Management, 8 (1), xx-xx 


Bedford, F. L. (in press?). A prism-adaptation based theory of psychological treatment for autoimmune disorders.  Autoimmune Diseases and Therapeutic Approaches


Bedford, F. L. & Yacobi, D. (2014) On two Jewish clades in mitochondrial DNA. European Journal of Human Genetics. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.231 Online ahead of print, Nov 5, 2014 .article 


[Bedford, F. L. (Dec. 22, 2013). Announcement of a new publication on Sephardic genetics. eSefarad: Noticias del Mundo Sefaradi  article]


Bedford, F. L., Yacobi, D., Felix, G., & Garza, F. (2013). Clarifying mitochondrial DNA subclades of T2e from Mideast to Mexico. Journal of Phylogenetics and Evolutionary Biology, 2, 4, 1-8. article


Bedford, F. L. (2012). A perception theory in mind-body medicine: guided visual imagery and mindful meditation as cross-modal adaptation. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review (DOI: 10.3758/s13423-011-0166-x) article   this one should be free full text if the other one isn't


Bedford, F. L. (2012) Sephardic Signature in Haplogroup T mitochondrial DNA. European Journal of Human Genetics (DOI: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.200) article


Bedford, F. L. (2011) The missing sense modality: The immune system.  Perception, 40, 1265-1267. (DOI:10.1068/p7119). article


Bedford, F.L. (2011) Mystery of the anti-McCollough Effect. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics. (DOI: 10.3758/s13414-011-0163-1). article


[Bedford, F. L. (November 2011). Imagine your pain away. Arizona Daily Star,

Science supplement. newspaper article scroll to page 529, bottom ]

Bedford, F. L. & Mansson, B.   (2010) Object Identity, Apparent Motion, Transformation geometry.  Current Research in Psychology,1, 35-52.

Bedford, F. L. (2007) Is prism adaptation for growth? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 105, 351-354. Abstract

Bedford, F. L. (2007) Can a space perception conflict be solved using three sense modalities? Perception, 36, 508-515. Article (html) Note: footnotes and some formatting lost in the html version.

[Bedford, F. L. (October 2, 2005). A broken watch is right twice a day. Letter to the editior, New York Times, Sunday Magazine.]

Bedford, F. L. (2004) Analysis of a constraint on perception, cognition, and development: One object, one place, one time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance, 30, 907-912. Article (pdf file) Article (html file) ( Abstract only) (This article discusses is there such a constraint? What does it mean to have such a constraint? What are its implications? When might it arise?)

[Bedford, F. (Sept. 5, 2004). The cost of cost analysis. Letter to the editor, New York Times, Sunday Business.]

Bedford, F. L. (2003). More on the Not-the-Liver Fallacy: Medical, neuropsychological, and perceptual dissociations. Cortex, 39, 170-173. Article (pdf file) or Cortex website (This article is a follow up on my 1997 paper. Both articles argue that inferring mental organs from dissociations (and double dissociations) leads to false categories in psychology that would be like inferring we have a physical organ "not the liver").

Bedford, F. L. (2002). Generality, mathematical elegance, and evolution of numerical/object identity. Brain and Behavioral Sciences. Special issue on the work of Roger Shepard, 24, Article-BBS website (if link is missing, contact author) (This commentary on Shepard's classic paper in part summarizes my theory of numerical/object identity (see below)

Bedford, F. L. (2001). Towards a general law of numerical/object identity. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitives/Current Psychology of Cognition, 20, 113-175. (whole issue with commentaries, volume 3-4). [Target article] Target Article (pdf) Target article (html file) (This is a very important article which argues for a new theory that integrates space perception, time perception, cross modal interactions, apparent motion and many other issues in perception and cognition. All the phenomena involve a core issue of how it's decided if two samples originate from the same source or two different sources).

See also Table of contents for issue 20, volume 3,4,5 (including titles/authors of commentaries): Table of contents (html)

Bedford, F. L. (2001). Object Identity Theory and the nature of general laws. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitives/Current Psychology of Cognition, 20, 277-293. (Reply to commentaries) First reply (html) Note: some formatting lost

Bedford, F. L. (2001) The role of object identity and Klein's geometry in cross-modal and other discrepancies. . Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitives/Current Psychology of Cognition, 20, 381-(Reply to additional commentaries) Second reply (html) Note: some formatting lost

Bedford, F. L. (1999). Keeping perception accurate. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 4-12. Article (pdf) (This article is a concise summary of my views on spatial adaptation and how perception is changed by experience generally.)

Bedford, F. L. (1997). False categories in cognition: The Not-the-Liver fallacy. Cognition, 64, 231-248. Article (pdf) (This article argues that inferring mental organs from dissociations (and double dissociations) leads to false categories in psychology that would be like inferring we have a physical organ "not the liver".)

Bedford, F. L. (1997). Are long-term changes to perception explained by Pavlovian associations or Perceptual Learning Theory? Cognition, 64, 223-230. Article (pdf) (This is a reply to a published attack on my theory of how experience changes perception as applied to the McCollough Effect).

McClosky, M. & Bedford, F. L. (1996) A left-right confusion deficit under dark-room test conditions. (unpublished)

Bedford, F. L. (1995). Localizing the spatial localization system: Helmholtz or Gibson? Psychological Science, 6, 387-388. Article (pdf) (Asks which of two spatial localization systems, egocentric or exocentric, goes away with a spatial deficit.)

Bedford, F. L. (1995) Constraints on perceptual learning: Objects and dimensions. Cognition, 54, 253-297. Article (pdf) (Important article which presents my theory on the McCollough Effect and other contingent aftereffects and how they are connected to prism adaptation in a unified theory of how experience changes perception.)

Bedford, F. L. (1994) Of computer mice and men. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitvies/ Current Psychology of Cognition, 13, 405-426. Article (pdf) (This article uses an empirical paradigm of writing on a digitizing table, which works like a computer mouse, to better explore adaptation to visual-motor distortion in 2-D space rather than 1-D . One question addressed is whether dimensions of space are independent of one another.)

Bedford, F. L. (1994) A pair of paradoxes and the perceptual pairing process. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitvies/Current Psychology of Cognition, 13, 60-68. Article (pdf) (Discusses how a paradox can be resolved on how perception is ever changed by experience if all experience comes through perception. Is applied to  cross-modal conflicts such as aftereffects of ventriloquism effect.)

Bedford, F. L. (1993) Perceptual and Cognitive Spatial Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 517-530. Article (pdf) (Shows how different patterns of generalization and learning occur in two different spatial learning mechanisms- one genuine perceptual adaptation and the other reflecting a more cognitive system. And more on linear constraints in perceptual adaptation.)

Bedford, F. (1993) Perceptual Learning. In D. Medin (Ed.) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 30, 1-60. Article (pdf) (Important chapter which lays out my theories of how learning affecting perception compares to other learning processes and what genuine perceptual change is. Empirical results from different paradigms summarized. Also covers my Kleinian transformation geometry work in spatial adaptation and what happens when trying adapting to mappings that are many to one and distort the topology of space.)

Bedford, F. L. & Reinke, K. S. (1993) The McCollough Effect: Dissociating retinal from spatial coordinates. Perception and Psychophysics, 54, 515-526. Article (pdf) (This article shows that a McCollough Effect aftereffect is contingent on retinal orientation and not spatial orientation of the stimulus when the exposure is ambiguous, and moreover cannot be made contingent on spatial orientation when the retinal contingency between color and orientation is removed.)

Bootzin, R. R., Dikman, Z., Perlis, M., Manber, R., & Bedford, F. L. The McCollough Effect: A measure of sleepiness. Sleep Research,

Bedford, F. L. Constraints on learning new mappings between perceptual dimensions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15, 232-248. Article NOTE: link may be broken. (Shows how space adaptation is not learning a list of visual-motor associations and how there is a preference for linear mappings between visual space and proprioceptive space.)

BONUS  Jewish DNA (pdf)

Forthcoming – perhaps:

Bedford, F. L. Visual-motor spatial pointing and growth: A mathematical model Abstract

Mansson, B. E. & Bedford, F. L. Illusory misidentification of human faces Abstract

Bedford, F. L. & Harvey, E.M. What plasticity is required in development for pointing in space? Abstract

Bedford, F. L. & Panagos, M. Perceptual learning in the Other Race Effect.


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